Five basic principles
• Be hard on the problem and soft on the person
• Focus on needs, not positions
• Emphasize common ground
• Be inventive about options
• Make clear agreements
Where possible prepare in advance. Consider what your needs are and what the other person's are. Consider outcomes that would address more of what you both want. Commit yourself to a win/win approach, even if tactics used by the other person seem unfair. Be clear that your task will be to steer the negotiation in a positive direction. To do so you may need to do some of the following:
Ask a question to reframe. (e.g. "If we succeed in resolving this problem,. what differences would you notice?" Request checking of understanding. ("Please tell me what you heard me/them say.") Request something she/he said to be re-stated more positively, or as an "I" statement. Re-interpret an attack on the person as an attack on the issue.
Respond not React
• Manage your emotions.
• Let some accusations, attacks, threats or ultimatums pass.
• Make it possible for the other party to back down without feeling humiliated (e.g. by identifying changed circumstances which could justify a changed position on the issue.)
Re-focus on the issue
Maintain the relationship and try to resolve the issue. (e.g. "What's fair for both of us?" Summarise how far you've got. Review common ground and agreement so far. Focus on being partners solving the problem, not opponents. Divide the issue into parts. Address a less difficult aspect when stuck. Invite trading ("If you will, then I will") Explore best and worst alternatives to negotiating an acceptable agreement between you.
Identify Unfair Tactics
Name the behaviour as a tactic. Address the motive for using the tactic. Chance the physical circumstances. Have a break. Change locations, seating arrangements etc. Go into smaller groups. Meet privately. Call for meeting to end now and resume later, perhaps... [continues]
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(2008, 11). Negotiation Techniques. StudyMode.com. Retrieved 11, 2008, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Negotiation-Techniques-177178.html
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"Negotiation Techniques." StudyMode.com. 11, 2008. Accessed 11, 2008. http://www.studymode.com/essays/Negotiation-Techniques-177178.html.