Negative Transfer

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  • Topic: Language acquisition, Second language acquisition, Linguistics
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Second Language Teaching and Learning

Negative Transfer of Pronunciation and the Polish Second Language Learner

MA Applied Linguistics and TESOL

Karolina Ciecwierz

Table of Contents
Negative Transfer of Pronunciation and the Polish Second Language learner

1. Introduction 3
2. Definition of Terms 3
❑ Language acquisition
❑ Interlanguage
❑ Interference
❑ Fossilization

3. Language Transfer 4

❑ Positive Transfer
❑ Negative Transfer

4. Analysis of Polish learner errors caused by Negative 7 Language Transfer

❑ Reading
❑ Phonetic Errors
❑ Stress
❑ Juncture
❑ Vowels
❑ Consonants
❑ Intonation

5. Influence of language learning environment. 9
6. Conclusion10
7. References12

Negative Transfer of Pronunciation and the Polish Second Language Learner

1. Introduction

‘Language transfer’ in the language learning process is inevitable. Language transfer as a linguistic concept has always been identified empirically in language learning situations. At the beginning of the assignment, I will define language transfer and its historical origin. However, the main focus of my assignment is on negative transfer and its impact on pronunciation development, occurrence of errors, and their identification. In essence, I will discuss how the learner’s existing linguistic knowledge influences second language pronunciation development, and then try to establish the extent to which learners’ awareness of transfer can influence language development.

2. Definition of the terms

Language acquisition
Corder (1994:20) says that “acquiring a language is a creative process in which learners are interacting with their environment to produce an internalised representation of the regularities they discover in the linguistic data to which they are exposed.”

Interlanguage
Ellis (1997:33) describes interlanguage as a unique linguistic system constructed by second language (L2) learners, relying partly on mother tongue (L1) linguistic knowledge.

Interference (Language Transfer)
According to behaviourist learning theory, old habits get in the way of new habits. In the case of second-language learning, this manifests itself in almost every aspect of language development, in that the tasks performed by the first language have equivalent constructs in the second, but are often implemented differently. Where competence in the second language is not yet complete, the methods of the first language are typically applied to the second, sometimes helpfully, where they are similar, sometimes resulting in consistent patterns of errors.

Fossilization
Fossilization is the “Phenomenon of non progression in language development despite exposure to input, adequate motivation to learn, and sufficient opportunity to practice.” Zhao Hong Han (2004). This retardation of language development is greatest when there is similarity between L1 and L2. Selinker (1972) pointed that most L2 learners will not reach native language competence, further stating that the learner’s native language rule system is the main determinant of L2 language knowledge.

3. Language transfer

Arabski (2006:12) describes transfer as a term used in Applied Linguistics to refer to a process in foreign language learning whereby learners carry over what they already know about their first language to their implementation of their new language. ‘Language transfer’ has been defined by behavioural psychologists as a process of language learning that relies on previous linguistic habits as a guide for the development of new learning. Typically, this finds familiar grammatical structures or vocabulary in a known language, and ‘transfers’ them to be used, as seems appropriate, in a...
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