Neeed to Avoid Using the Cellphone While Driving

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MAX WEBER – THEORY OF BUREAUCRACY
In the late 1800s, Max Weber criticized organizations for running their businesses like a family. Weber believed this informal organization of supervisors and employees inhibited the potential success of a company because power was misplaced. He felt that employees were loyal to their bosses and not to the organization. Max weber envisage an organisation that would function on an impersonal and rational basis and also strict adherence to explicit rules and regulations. According to Max Weber there are three kind of authority which are - 1. Traditional Authority - This type of authority rests on an established belief that leaders have a traditional and legitimate right to exercise authority, where different traditional circumstances enable and legitimize those in command to exercise authority. This traditional authority gives rise to patrimonial systems like e.g. patriarchal and feudalistic systems and societies. These systems are however dependent upon the followers' acceptance of this authority, and that the followers see this type of authority as legitimate. 2. Charismatic Authority - This type of authority rests on the belief in an exceptional sanctity, heroism or exemplary character of an individual, and on the normative patterns or orders revealed and issued by him or her. Charismatic leaders are often seen as legitimate in times of crisis or change when extraordinary leadership is called for, and when this extraordinary leadership is recognized in the specific authorial figure by followers. 3. Rational – Legal Authority - This type of authority rests on the belief in the "legality" of formal rules and hierarchies, and in the right of those elevated in the hierarchy to possess authority and issue commands. This type of authority is often seen as legitimate in bureaucratic systems, which enables impersonal, specific and formal structures of modern companies. People will hence find this type of authority legitimate, if the authority is distributed to leaders based on e.g. rationality and capability. The Rational – Legal Authority provide the basis for max weber theory of bureaucracy. In a bureaucratic society leadership role are more rational because leaders are chosen based on merit that is leader will be picked based on intelligence, decision-making ability and competence. This provide a legal means for exercising authority and this lead to more effective and efficient organization. PRINCIPLES OF BUREACRACY

1. A Well-defined formal hierarchy and chain of command - Individuals who hold higher positions will supervise and direct lower positions within the hierarchy. For example, Megan the Manager supervises a team of four sales representatives. Megan's position within the organization as a supervisor gives her authority over those four sales representatives to direct and control their actions to ensure organizational goals are met. 2. Management by Rules and Regulations - provides a set of standard operating procedures that facilitate consistency in both organizational and management practices. For example, when an employee is sick and cannot make it into work that day, he or she must call out to their direct supervisor. If one of Megan's sales reps is sick, they are expected to call her directly to inform her of their absence. Any employee who fails to do this will be subject to termination. All of Megan's employees are expected to follow this rule, and Megan is expected to enforce this rule equally among her employees. 3. Division of Labour and Work Specialization –This is used to align employees with their organizational tasks. This way, an employee will work on things with which he or she has experience and knows how to do well. For example, let's say two of Megan's sales reps are experienced in selling products to vendors in the western region of the state due to their extensive experience working in that area. Megan would then put those two employees in...
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