Need to Know and Best Seller List

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rOPINION

ALL I REALLY NEED T O K N O W . . .
David P. Srern
Recently I picked up a paperback t h a t
was lying around the house, All I
Really Need to Know I Learned in
Kindergarten, a collection of short
essays by Robert Fulghum. Years ago
when it topped the best seller list, it
somehow passed me by (but not my
wife, who must have brought it home).
The first essay in the book stated
Fulghum's personal credo—what he
really needed to know, he claimed to
have learned in kindergarten.
What is a physicist's credo? What
things does a physicist need to know?
I thought it over and compiled a list,
and here it is. Your priorities might
differ—this is the list of a theorist
concerned with research. None of
the items listed was learned in kindergarten; in fact, none was part of my university or graduate curriculum. It turns out t h a t all I really need to know about physics I had to
dig up by myself.
A physicist's credo
Keep notes of ideas, lectures and
work. Memory fades but what is
written down stays yours. While
young you may wing it, but once you
turn 40 or 50, your notes—numbered,
dated, indexed and collected in
binders—make all the difference between still doing useful work and spinning your wheels.
Rough notes are but a fading latent
image. Transcribe them, don't wait.
Edit what you produce, illustrate it,
use neat handwriting or, better still,
use a word processor. The material is
hard enough; whatever smoothes its
retrieval is a great help.
If it's memorable, write it down.
Keep an open notebook by the phone.
Number and date your entries.
Scan the literature and read what
David Stern, a physicist at NASA's
C o d d a r d Space Flight Center, works on
t h e m a p p i n g a n d g l o b a l physics o f t h e
Earth's magnetosphere.
© 1993 Americon Instirure of Physics

is pertinent. (You aren't Feynman.)
Collect references. Be lucid and even
tutorial in writing your own papers.
Take time to select the text you
study. A poor text will frustrate you,
a good one will make you soar. Seek
one t h a t provides intuitive insights
and write down in your own words
key sections and calculations. Solve
problems.
Never stop studying. Make up
your own exercises as you go along.
They prepare the way for more serious problems.
Don't get drawn into a big project
unless you have a clear idea of its
final product.
Go for the big problems. No one
cares about publishable petty results.
Take your time preparing for a
project—or else you may spend too
much time doing things you did not
need to do.
Look out for the future. Make a
program of what you intend to do—
next month, next year, in the long
term. Adjust it as you learn more.
Learn to smell out good problems.
Skill in finding them is more important than skill in solving them (though both count). You have it
made if you know how to transform
puzzling data into well-posed problems. Stash away partially solved puzzles for later attention.
Never tell yourself you understand
when you don't. (How can you know
the meaning of F = ma unless you
clearly define F and ml) And if you
don't understand, struggle to do so.
Consult books, friends and common
sense. Keep notes.
If in the end you still don't get it,
write down what you have. Some day
you might be able to continue.
Take the time to arrange ideas in
your mind and notes: The pattern is
just as important as the material.
Awareness of history helps one recognize the pattern.
Don't fear drudgery. No pain, no

gain.
However, if a piece of calculation
leads into an ever-denser thicket,
nature probably did not intend you to
go t h a t way. Look for a different
approach.
Once you understand a derivation,
try to divine its intuitive meaning.
Ideally, all you need remember are
concepts; the math can be added
later.
Check dimensions and orders of
magnitude.
Prepare for every lecture. In writing.
Rehearse ten-minute talks for
meetings. Distribute...
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