Rediscovering Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.
Axis Consultation and Training Ltd
Originally published in: Villa, R., Thousand, J., Stainback, W. & Stainback, S. Restructuring for Caring & Effective Education. Baltimore: Paul Brookes, 1992.
© Copyright 1992 Paul H. Brookes Publishers.
Newtonian principles of physics were regarded as true until Einstein demonstrated that they provided an inadequate explanation of the laws of nature. Similarly, Freudian analysts viewed a woman's admission of being sexually abused by her father as a neurotic fantasy stemming from an "Electra complex." Only recently have other forms of therapy shown that women are accurate in their accounts of being abused. In every field of knowledge, anomalies such as these arise that call current practices and "paradigms" (i.e. world views) into question and necessitate the creation of new paradigms and related practices. It is precisely through this process that a body of knowledge develops. Such a process is now taking place in the field of special education. Anomalies have arisen that seriously call into question the validity of segregating students with specific physical, intellectual, or emotional needs. Moreover, these anomalies demand that new paradigms be created and embraced.
THE SPECIAL EDUCATION PARADIGM: SKILLS AS A PREREQUISITE TO INCLUSION
In the United States, P.L. 94-142, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, and the concept of the least restrictive environment (LRE) initially were seen as meaningful steps toward including children with physical, intellectuaI, and emotional needs within regular classrooms. In actuality, however, this legislation and its embedded concept of LRE still gave credence to segregated, self-contained classrooms. Although lip service was given to the idea that students would be integrated as much as possible, the underlying paradigm supporting the maintenance of the continuum of services was that... [continues]
Cite This Essay
(2008, 04). The Need to Belong: Rediscovering Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.. StudyMode.com. Retrieved 04, 2008, from http://www.studymode.com/essays/Need-Belong-Rediscovering-Maslows-Hierarchy-Needs-140289.html
"The Need to Belong: Rediscovering Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs." StudyMode.com. 04 2008. 04 2008 <http://www.studymode.com/essays/Need-Belong-Rediscovering-Maslows-Hierarchy-Needs-140289.html>.
"The Need to Belong: Rediscovering Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs.." StudyMode.com. 04, 2008. Accessed 04, 2008. http://www.studymode.com/essays/Need-Belong-Rediscovering-Maslows-Hierarchy-Needs-140289.html.