PNSS (Neb q 8) a method of administering a drug by spraying it into the respiratory passages of the patient. The medication may be given with or without oxygen to help carry it into the lungs. Indication:
Relieve and prevent bronchospasm in patient with obstructive airway. Nursing Responsibilities
* Assist client during nebulization.
* Instruct to administer the nebulization at exact time and interval. * Notify physician if there is paradoxic bronchospasm occur during the therapy * Instruct the patient to report any untoward reactions such as fast-breathing and DOB. * Chestphysiotherapy every after nebulization.
-it is used to drain air, and also fluid from the pleural cavity and to restore the normal negative intrapleural pressure, making lung expansion possible after surgery or trauma o the chest cavity.
>blood or fluid in the pleural space
1. Explain the procedure to the patient in general terms
2. Provide privacy with the client
3. Check tubing to be sure it is coiled in bed and draining. 4. Secure connections: retape as needed.
5. Observe for the amount, character and rate of drainage.
6. Watch out for leaks of air in the drainage system as indicated by constant bubbling in the water seal bottle.
Bronchoscopy is a technique of visualizing the inside of the airways for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. An instrument (bronchoscope) is inserted into the airways, usually through the nose or mouth, or occasionally through a tracheostomy.
Recovery after bronchoscopy
Bronchoscopy by either procedure usually takes between 30 to 60 minutes. You will be in recovery for 2 to 3 hours after the procedure. Following the procedure: * Are taking any medicines.
* Are allergic to any medicines, including anesthetics.
* Have had bleeding problems or take blood-thinners, such as aspirin, clopidogrel (Plavix), or warfarin (Coumadin).
* Do not eat or drink anything for about 2 hours, until you are able to swallow without choking. After that, you may resume your normal diet, starting with sips of water. * Spit out your saliva until you are able to swallow without choking. * Do not drive for at least 8 hours after the procedure.
* Do not smoke for at least 24 hours.
* To view abnormalities of the airway
* To obtain tissue specimens of the lung in a variety of disorders. Specimens may be taken from inside the lungs by biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage, or endobronchial brushing. * To evaluate a person who has bleeding in the lungs, possible lung cancer, a chronic cough, sarcoidosis Therapeutic
* To remove secretions, blood, or foreign objects lodged in the airway * Laser resection of tumors or benign tracheal and bronchial strictures * Stent insertion to palliate extrinsic compression of the tracheobronchial lumen from either malignant or benign disease processes * Bronchoscopy is also employed in percutaneous tracheostomy * Tracheal intubation of patients with difficult airways is often performed using a flexible bronchoscope
An echocardiogram, often referred to in the medical community as a cardiac ECHO or simply an ECHO, is a sonogram of the heart
Echocardiography is used to diagnose cardiovascular diseases. It is especially useful for assessing diseases of the heart valves. It not only allows doctors to evaluate the heart valves, but it can detect abnormalities in the pattern of blood flow, such as the backward flow of blood through partly closed heart valves, known as regurgitation. By assessing the motion of the heart wall, echocardiography can help detect the presence and assess the severity of any wall ischemia that may be associated with coronary artery disease. Echocardiography also helps determine whether any chest pain or associated symptoms are related to heart disease. Echocardiography can also help detect any...