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Facts about Administration of Blood and Blood Products

I. Procedure

1. Equipment

• Blood or blood products (see Table 1)
• Tubing with filter
• 19–gauge needle for venous access


2. Type and cross–match blood— ensures that the donor’s blood and recipient’s blood are compatible (see Table 2)


3. Check blood for bubbles, dark color, or cloudiness
4. Ask client about allergies or previous blood reactions 5. Check by two nurses

• Physician’s order                           • Patient’s identity                           • Hospital ID band name and number                           • Blood component tag name and number

• Blood type and Rh

6. Check baseline vital signs, including temperature
7. Start with normal saline (0.9% NaCl)
8. Run blood slowly for first 15 minutes
9. Stay with patient for 15 – 30 minutes
10. Recheck vital signs 15 minutes after infusion started
11. If no untoward effects, increase rate; should be infused in 2 hours for each unit (depending on patient’s cardiovascular status) (see Table 3) 12. Take vital signs every hour until completed, then hourly for 3 hours 13. For elderly check vital signs every 15 minutes throughout transfusion 14. For elderly infuse each unit over 3 – 4 hours

15. Ask patient to report itching or flank pain over kidneys 16. Change entire IV line for each unit of blood
17. If transfusion reaction suspected

• Stop blood or blood product
• Restart normal saline
• Save blood container and tubing and return to blood bank • Draw blood sample for plasma, hemoglobin, culture, retyping • Collect urine sample and send to lab for hemoglobin determination • Monitor voiding for hematuria

II. Autologous transfusion

1. Preoperative donation collected 4 – 6 weeks before surgery 2. Iron supplements may be ordered
3. Benefits...
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