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Facts about Administration of Blood and Blood Products

I. Procedure

1. Equipment

• Blood or blood products (see Table 1)
• Tubing with filter
• 19–gauge needle for venous access

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2. Type and cross–match blood— ensures that the donor’s blood and recipient’s blood are compatible (see Table 2)

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3. Check blood for bubbles, dark color, or cloudiness
4. Ask client about allergies or previous blood reactions 5. Check by two nurses

• Physician’s order                           • Patient’s identity                           • Hospital ID band name and number                           • Blood component tag name and number

• Blood type and Rh

6. Check baseline vital signs, including temperature
7. Start with normal saline (0.9% NaCl)
8. Run blood slowly for first 15 minutes
9. Stay with patient for 15 – 30 minutes
10. Recheck vital signs 15 minutes after infusion started
11. If no untoward effects, increase rate; should be infused in 2 hours for each unit (depending on patient’s cardiovascular status) (see Table 3) 12. Take vital signs every hour until completed, then hourly for 3 hours 13. For elderly check vital signs every 15 minutes throughout transfusion 14. For elderly infuse each unit over 3 – 4 hours

15. Ask patient to report itching or flank pain over kidneys 16. Change entire IV line for each unit of blood
17. If transfusion reaction suspected

• Stop blood or blood product
• Restart normal saline
• Save blood container and tubing and return to blood bank • Draw blood sample for plasma, hemoglobin, culture, retyping • Collect urine sample and send to lab for hemoglobin determination • Monitor voiding for hematuria

II. Autologous transfusion

1. Preoperative donation collected 4 – 6 weeks before surgery 2. Iron supplements may be ordered
3. Benefits...
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