Ncert Class 12 Sociology

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Textbook of Sociology for Class XII

Textbook of Sociology for Class XII



1. Structural Processes of Change 2. Cultural Processes of Change 3. State and Social Change 4. Legislation and Democratic Decentralisation 5. Economic Development and Social Change 6. New Groups, Classes and Globalisation 7. Education and Social Change 8. Mass Media and Cultural Change 9. Dissent and Social Change 10. Social Deviance

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Structural Process of Change
Change is a fact of human life. We may not be aware of it in our day-to-day experience but it continues to affect us in one way or the other. A hundred and thousand years might be a moment in the life of rocks and mountains but in human society changes take place in the course of merely a generation or two. Think of a situation in which your grandmother was living in a village where a large number of family members were staying together in one household. She had to maintain purdah and was not allowed to come out of the four walls of the house till she had become old. Now compare it with the condition of your mother. Do you not find a change in the structure of your own family, now when only a few members are staying together ? Your uncle is living in another household with his wife and children. Likewise, your grandfather was an agriculturist but your father might have shifted to the urban area to take up a job in a government office. You will notice several corresponding changes even in the life-style of your own family. These alterations have occurred merely in a generation or two. A close look will reveal changes both in the structure and function of family and in patterns of occupations. It is this dimension of change that we intend to study in the present course. Our focus will be on the nature and extent of social change in contemporary Indian society. The study of social change in India is important for several reasons. It tells us how contemporary Indian society is transforming from a traditional society to a modern developed society. It shows how changes are occurring in our social institutions and what are the factors bringing about such changes. It also indicates our achievements as a nation and identifies problems and setbacks in certain areas of our life. Social change is a process, in the sense that it involves a series of events over a period of time. The idea of continuity is implied in it and shows a sequence of operations that bring about change. Thus, the notion of process indicates two major dimensions of social change—its nature and direction. While the nature of change reveals content of change, the direction speaks about the line in which it is moving. We intend to



discuss here both the substance and the factors of change. Sociologists in India have analysed the process of social change under two broad categories—structural processes and cultural processes. Structural processes of change are due to a transformation in the network of social relationships. Caste, kinship, family and occupational groups constitute some of the structural realities. Change in these relationships is a structural change. When the traditional agrarian system based on family labour is transformed into agrarian system based on hired labour with a view to produce for the market, we may call it a structural change. The transfor mation of joint family to nuclear family brings about change in structure and function of family. It is through the process of differentiation of roles that structural change takes place. To put it differently, role of a social institution changes due to specific sequence of events making it more effective in the changed situation. In fact, structural differentiation of roles leads to functional specialisation. Reverting to our earlier example, in addition to procreation and...
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