Once the Nazis came to power, Jews were subjected to increased discrimination, though anti- semitic policy developed in a typically haphazard manner. In 1993 some Jews were deprived of their jobs and in 1935 all lost their citizenship.
The pogroms of the Night of Broken Glass in November 1938 symbolised the radicalisation of the regime. The Nazis, by then politically and economically secure, were free to pursue their aim of Jews out of German life. Jewish peoples’ economic position, then their individual freedom and ultimately their lives came under threat.
Until 1939 the Nazis favoured emigration as a way to remove the Jewish presence from Germany, but the outbreak of war made overseas emigration difficult. Indeed, the war had a crucial effect on anti Semitic policy, increasing the number of Jews within German- controlled territory and provoking a brutalisation of life that reduced objections to mass murder.
By winter 1941, an estimated 700,000 Jews had been killed, mainly in unsystematic mass shootings. The SS then decided gassing was more efficient, In January 1942, Nazi policy was co-ordinated and the ‘final Solution’ adopted, with the euthanasia programme as a model. Between 1942 and 1945 over 5 million Jews were systematically muderdered in concentration camps.
Official boycott of Jewish shops and businesses declared to prevent unruly anti- semitic attacks by radicals.
Law for Protection of German Blood and German Honour- forbids marriage between Aryan and Jews Reich citizenship law- deprives Jews of German citizen ship
November 1938 Night of Broken Glass
1. Compare and contrast the Germany of 1945 with the Germany of 1933