*The actual documents (what you will be using as evidence in your papers) are in the boxes. *The questions that follow each document are there to help you analyze them.
In this excerpt, Adolf Hitler explains some of his ideas.
One blood demands one Reich. Never will the German nation have the moral right to enter into colonial politics until, at least, it includes its own sons within a single state.... Oppressed territories are led back to the bosom of a common Reich, not by flaming protests, but by a mighty sword.Source: Adolf Hitler, Mein Kampf, 1925-26 (adapted)
1. What did Hitler suggest was needed for Germany? How would that lead to war?
Italy attacked Ethiopia in 1935. Haile Selassie, emperor of Ethiopia, asked the League of Nations for help in stopping the invasion. He asked for military sanctions. Here is part of his appeal to the League of Nations.
God and history will remember your judgment. ... It is us today. It will be you tomorrow.
2a. According to Haile Selassie, who should stop the aggressors?
b. What would happen if the aggressors were not stopped?
Hitler promised to tear up the Versailles Treaty. One article of the treaty forbade German troops from entering the Rhineland, a buffer zone between Germany and France. Two headlines and articles from The New York Times of March 8, 1936, are excerpted below. They explain this issue from the German and the French points of view.
HITLER SENDS GERMAN TROOPS INTO RHINELAND
Berlin, March 7-Germany today cast off the last shackles fastened upon her by the Treaty of Versailles when Adolf Hitler, as commander-in-chief of the Reich defense forces, sent his new battalions into the Rhineland's demilitarized zone.... "After three years of ceaseless battle," Hitler concluded, "I look upon this day as marking the close of the struggle for German equality status and with that re-won equality the path is now clear for Germany's return to European collective cooperation." PARIS APPEALS TO LEAGUE
Paris, March 7-France has laid Germany's latest treaty violation before the Council of the League of Nations. At the same time the French Government made it quite clear that there could be no negotiation with Germany ... as long as a single German soldier remained in the Rhineland in contravention [violation] of Germany's signed undertakings [agreements].... What is essential, in the French view, is that the German government must be compelled by diplomatic pressure first, and by stronger pressure if need be, to withdraw from the Rhineland. Source: The New York Times, March 8, 1936 (adapted)
3a. What action did Hitler take in defiance of the Versailles Treaty? How did he explain his action?
3b. What was the reaction in France? How might this have led to war?
German aggression continued in 1938. Britain, France, and Italy met with Hitler to discuss his demands for the Sudetenland, a section of Czechoslovakia. This radio broadcast by William Shirer describes what happened at this meeting.
It took the Big Four just five hours and twenty-five minutes here in Munich today to dispel the clouds of war and come to an agreement over the partition of Czechoslovakia. There is to be no European war ... the price of that peace is ... the ceding by Czechoslovakia of the Sudeten territory to Herr Hitler's Germany. The German Fuhrer gets what he wanted.... His waiting ten short days has saved Europe from a world war ... most of the peoples of Europe are happy that they won't have to go marching off to war .... Probably only the Czechs ...
are not too happy. But there seems very little that they can do about it in face of all the might and power represented here.Source: William Shirer, CBS broadcast, 1938 (adapted)
4. What happened at this Munich Conference, according to Shirer? What did he feel was the reaction in Czechoslovakia and in the rest of Europe?