The debate of Nature vs. Nurture has been a widely argued topic among psychologists for more than a century. Throughout the history of this dispute there has been no clear conclusion but many hypotheses. Both sides/opinions of the nature vs. nurture debate have been thoroughly explored among researchers and overwhelming evidence has been found. The hereditarian view of intelligence (nature) is that a person maintains his/her mental ability based on what he/she is born with genetically. Conversely, the argument that a person’s environment plays a large role in his/her mental aptitude is nurture. With a heap of experiments from each side being done, it is now quite clear that both sides of the debate are partially right. One can give an accurate explanation about the issue if they accept that nature gives unborn abilities and traits; whereas nurture takes these genetic abilities and shapes them as we mature and learn.
The English scientist Francis Galton (1822-1911) initiated the debate between environmentalists and hereditarians more than a century ago. He made many significant contributions to both genetics and psychology. Importantly he was a famous explorer of human intelligence and made other contributions to the fields of anthropometry, meteorology and physical anthropology. In 1865 he began to study heredity. He was convinced that success in various fields resulted from hereditary factors opposed to those who believed in environmental determination. Interest in the role of heredity led him to introduce the method of twin studies to examine the difference between nature and nurture.