UNI 104 - Understanding Nature and Knowledge
Prof. Harun Bekir Küçük
Ancient period of natural philosophy
Philosophy? When human beings hear this word what comes to their mind is Aristotle, probably. However, plenty of people don’t know what exactly philosophy means and where this science came from. Philosophy means for them something different that goes deep. Whenever somebody says extraordinary some may consider as a philosophical thinking. So, this work is going to explain how was philosophy started, how first societies understood philosophy, who were the first thinkers and related questions. To answer to all this questions history of philosophy comes first, which was Ancient Egypt and Babylon, next pre-Socratic societies and further comes great thinkers like Plato and his student Aristotle and their ideas, similarities, their followers.
Natural philosophy was existed in fetal time covered only things applicable to the nature. The first human labor of fight to ride out brings us to the understanding of natural philosophy. There was no proof or any information related to it as holding “ all inquiries about the physical world “ that we just agreed with this term. This conception of philosophy releases to illiterate society, which further passed on coming generations. Members of preliterate societies figured out manners of animals or plant or devised description even magical or natural, or personal natural marvel by empirical methods. The knowledge of nature should have obtained from their taking part of hunting and agriculture. But the general idea of nature was given. The first human beings must have been conscious of nature where surrounded them that was engage in everything happened. Much more things about the nature and its actions were learned by ancient civilizations of Egypt and Mesopotamia. The first evidence approaching as natural philosophy was found in two big coexisting river-valley culture of Egypt and Mesopotamia. The writing culture of hieroglyphics of Egyptians is on papyrus and tomb of walls and monuments where Mesopotamians civilization was writing of characters of written records. This spreads out a great significance on mythology and religion, which is the statement of creation of the world and his operation. Furthermore, astronomy, mathematics and medicine were extended basically practical interest in the physical world. Additionally, in ancient Egypt and Babylonians were interested about how our universe came to be. To answer above question, magic, religion, myth and gross observation were mixed up. People at that time never considered the world that it made up form nothing (ex nihilo), it was thought that the world was created from something until Christianity. For instance, for the Egyptians thought that the world was created out of Nun, which was considered as primitive water or out of Ptah or the sun. A version of Babylonian creation myths appears in the Enuma Elish, which was about war of between salt-water and sweet water, which has striking similarities to the ﬁrst two chapters of the Book of Genesis, which tells of the relations between the gods before the creation of the world. It describes the time when only Apsu, the primeval sweet-water ocean, and Ti’amat, the saltwater ocean, existed along with their son, Mummu, who seems to represent “the mist rising from the two bodies of water and hovering over them.” After an unknown time, the god Ea and the goddess Damki[na] produced a child, Marduk, who would eventually become “the wisest of the gods.” In an epic showdown battle, Marduk killed Ti’amat and then split her immense body in two, using one-half of her corpse to fashion the sky, and used the other half to make the earth. Thus was our world created. In his huge work on Egyptian science, Marshall Clagett claimed that ancient Egyptians culture was exactly the same as its in religion and magic. The beginning...