Nature and Components of Man

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Nature and Components of Man

Platonic Soul

Three Parts:

1. The logos or logistikon (mind, nous, or reason)
2. The thymos, or thumetikon (emotion, or spiritedness or masculine) 3. The eros, or epithumetikon (appetitive, or desire, or feminine)

Aristotle on the Soul

Matter and Form:

1. Aristotle uses his familiar matter/form distinction to answer the question “What is soul?” 2. Things that have souls. Their souls are what make them living things.

Things that have souls. Their souls are what make them living things.

Aristotle is interested in compounds that are alive:
a) Plants
b) Animals
3. Since form is what makes matter a “this” the soul is the form of a living thing

The soul (Psyche) - is the form of the body and that which prevents humans from falling apart. The human soul also provides the purposes and the ultimate end that human beings pursue.

Aristotle believe that humans has 3 souls:

1. Vegetative soul – the source of nourishment and reproduction 2. Animal soul – the basis of sensation as well as ability to move 3. Nous (intelligent/spiritual soul) - pure and immortal

- does not share the mortality of the body but is much more akin to the Gods.

Degrees of soul:

1. Nested hierarchy of functions:
1. Growth, nutrition, (reproduction)
2. Locomotion, perception
3. Intellect (=thought)

2. Three corresponding degree of soul:
1. Nutritive soul (plants)
2. Sensitive soul (all animals)
3. Rational soul (human beings)

3. Nested in the sense that anything that has a higher degree of soul also has all of the lower degrees.


* Classical Greek Philosopher, mathematician
* Student of Socrates
* Writer of Philosophical dialogues
* Founder of the Academy in Athens – the first institution of higher learning in Western world.

4 Cardinal Virtues

1. Prudence – able to judge between actions...
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