Karelia (historically also Swedish Karelia) is a historical province of Finland. It refers to the Western Karelia that during the second millennium has been under western dominance, religiously and politically. Western, or Finnish Karelia is separate from Eastern, or Russian Karelia, which was dominated by Novgorod and its successor states from the 12th century onwards. Parts of the historical province of Karelia are divided between the Provinces of Eastern Finland andSouthern Finland. Within the provinces there are also the Regions of North Karelia and South Karelia A large part of Finnish Karelia was ceded by Finland to the Soviet Union in 1940 after the Soviet aggression known as the Winter War. When the new border was established close to that of 1721. During the Continuation War of 1941-44, most of the ceded area was liberated by Finnish troops, but in 1944 was occupied again by the Red Army. After the war, the remains of the Province of Viipuri were made into the Province of Kymi. In 1997 the province was incorporated within the province of Southern Finland.
Western Karelia, as a historical Province of Sweden, was religiously and politically distinct from the eastern parts that were under theRussian Orthodox Church. Following the fall of the Soviet Union the long-silenced debate over returning Karelia from Russia to Finland resurfaced in Finland.
Region has timber and several mineral and freshwater resources. Forestry, paper factories, and the agricultural sector are important for Finnish Karelians.
If we mention about bio energy we can say that; North Karelia invests in renewable energy. Long-term research has led to the emergence of one of the world’s leading wood energy expertise and technology clusters. In addition to dozens of companies in the field, several top research and education units with good international connections also operate in the region. Measured in self-sufficiency and the share of renewable energy, North Karelia already clearly exceeds all climate goals set by the EU for the upcoming decades. Forest reserves and increasing energy efficiency make it possible to further reduce the region’s carbon footprint. Bioenergy is predicted to become a top industry of the future. Its value has already been understood for a long time North Karelia, and now North Karelia is happy to set an example for others.
Karelia has made active policy development related to bioenergy already for years. The new Climate and Energy Programme of North Karelia 2020 was approved in 2011 being the fourth strategic bioenergy related programme adopted since the 1990s. The new programme updates the earlier North Karelia Bioenergy Programme 2015, which concentrated mainly on forest bioenergy, but covered also agrobiomass, biogas, peat and recycled wood.North Karelia has ambitious objectives in bioenergy development. The general objectives of the region are to become a “Fossil oil free region in heating and power generation by 2020” and a “Fossil oil free region by 2030”. Realisation of these objectives will require serious commitment from the whole society to the targets expressed in the Climate and Energy programme: from decision- and policymakers, communities, companies and single individuals. Education and distribution of information play a key role in creating a general attitude that...