Natural Fibre

Topics: Cellulose, Fiber, Cotton Pages: 7 (1634 words) Published: January 20, 2013

Chemistry of Cotton Fiber

The chemical composition of cotton fibers and the quantity of different constituents vary greatly with the type of plant, soil and climate. Row cotton fiber, after ginning, is essentially composed 94% cellulose.

Chemical composition of cotton fiber:

 Constituents                                     Percent

Cellulose                                           94.0%

Protein                                              1.3

Paretic substances                             1.2

Ash                                                   1.2

Fat and was                                      0.6

Organic acid, sugar and others          1.7

Although cellulose is the chief component of plant cell-walls, as a naturally occurring material, it contains also a wide verity of other materials in small amounts notably protein, pectin substance es, ash and waxy materials. These are frequently called fiber impurities, but they exert a considerable influence he processing and usefulness of the fiber.

Ash: Potassium Antimony Calcium Magnesium Iron Aluminium etc,

Fat and Waxes: Cotton wax is found on the outer surface of the fiber,. Cotton wax is primarily long chains of fatty acids and alcohols. The cotton wax serves as a protective barrier for the cotton fiber. Liters (based on C15 – C33 fatty acids), Waxy alcohols (C24– C34), hydrocarbons, etc.

Pectin substances: The pectin substances play an important role in plant life. The primary function of the pectin substances is the commenting together of the individual cells that compose4 the plant e.g. prospecting, pectin and pectin acid.

Proteins (also known as polypertides): They are organic compounds made of amino acids arranges in a linear chain and folded into a globour form. The amino acids in a polymer chain are joined together by the peptide bonds between the carboxyl and amino groups of adjacent amino acid residues.

Organic acid and sugar: Organic acids are found in the cotton fiber as metabolic residues. They are made up of malic acid and citric acid. Sugar makes up three percent of the cotton fiber, the sugar comes from two sources plant sugar and sugar from insects. The plant sugars accrue from the growth process of the cotton plant. The plant sugars consist of monosaccharide, glucose and fructose. The insect sugars are mainly for whiteflies, the insect sugars can cause stickiness, which can lead to problems in the textile mills.


Cotton is used to make a number of textile products. These include terrycloth for highly absorbent bath towels and robes.

Socks, underwear, and most T-shirts are made from cotton. Bed sheets often are made from cotton.

Cotton also is used to make yarn used in crochet and knitting. While many fabrics are made completely of cotton, some materials blend cotton with other fibers, including rayon and synthetic fibers such as polyester.

In addition to the textile industry, cotton is used in fishing nets, coffee filters, tents, explosives manufacture (see nitrocellulose), cotton paper, and in bookbinding. The first Chinese paper was made of cotton fiber. Fire hoses were once made of cotton.

Cellulose Fibre

Among the natural fibers are cellulose, the primary structural component of plants and bacterial cell walls; animal fibers such as wool and silk; and biochemical fibers. Plant fibers are composed of cellulose (see Figure 1), lignin (see Figure 2), or similar compounds; animal fibers are composed of protein


Cellulose, the most widespread organic molecule on Earth, is the major component of plant cell walls. Plants produce approximately 50 kilograms of cellulose daily for each person on Earth. About 33% of all plant matter is cellulose (the cellulose content of cotton fiber is 90%, that of wood is 40–50% and that of dried hemp is approximately 75%).

A linear polymer made up of 10,000 to 15,000 glucose molecules bonded in a 1 → 4...
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