Natural Disasters

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What are Natural Disasters?

The World is always changing.
Natural disasters are changes which are so great they may cause damage to the shape of the land or to the lives of people and other living things.Great changes happen deep inside the Earth and on its surface. The changes on the outer part of the Earth happen because of different kinds of weather.

What are Natural Disasters?
Volcanic eruption
Earthquake
Cyclone or Hurricane
Avalanche
Flood
Drought
Forest fire or Bushfire

Volcanoes
A volcanic eruption is the spurting out of gases and hot lava from an opening in the Earth’s crust. Pressure from deep inside the Earth forces ash, gas and molten rock to the surface.

Earthquake
An earthquake is a violent shaking of the ground. Sometimes it is so strong that the ground splits apart. When parts of the earth, called plates, move against each other giant shock waves move upwards towards the surface causing the earthquake.

Effects of Earthquakes

Earthquakes produce various damaging effects to the areas they act upon. This includes damage to buildings and in worst cases the loss of human life. The effects of the rumbling produced by earthquakes usually leads to the destruction of structures such as buildings, bridges, and dams. They can also trigger landslides.Besides producing floods and destroying buildings, earthquakes that take place under the ocean can sometimes cause tsunamis, or tidal waves. Tsunamis are high and long walls of water which travel at a very rapid rate. They are notorious for destroying entire populations and cities near coastlines

Preventiom:
1.) If an earthquake is occuring the most important thing to do is to DROP and COVER. Drop and cover means to fall on to the floor and get under something for protection. During an earthquake, if you are indoors, it is very important to stay calm and take cover under a heavy object. 2.) If you are outdoors, stay as far away from buildings as possible. 3.) Stay away from glass or anything that could fall. 4.) If you are in a crowded area, do not even consider running for the nearest exit. Everyone will be doing that, and crowding will lead to even more injuries. Take cover under something heavy and stay away from things that could fall on you. It is also very important to remain as calm as possible. 5.) Be prepared for aftershocks after the initial earthquake has ended. Aftershocks are follow-up earthquakes. They are smaller than the first one, but still are very dangerous. Cyclone, Hurricane, Tornado or Typhoon

A Cyclone is a fierce storm with storm winds that spin around it in a giant circle. During a cyclone trees can be uprooted, buildings can be destroyed and cars can be overturned.
Avalanche
An Avalanche is a movement of snow, ice and rock down a mountainside. Avalanches happen very suddenly and can move as fast as a racing car up to 124mph. Avalanches can be caused by –
snow melting quickly
snow freezing, melting then freezing again
someone skiing
a loud noise or an earth tremor

Flood
A flood is caused by an overflow of water which covers the land that is usually dry. Floods are caused by heavy rain or by snow melting and the rivers burst their banks and overflow. Costal floods are caused by high tides, a rise in sea level, storm waves or tsunami (earthquakes under the sea).

Drought
A drought is the lack of rain for a long time.
In 1968 a drought began in Africa. Children born during this year were five years old before rain fell again.

Tsunami" is the Japanese word meaning tidal wave. A tidal wave is a large sea wave caused by a submarine earthquake or volcanic explosion. When the ocean floor is tilted or offset during an earthquake, a set of waves is created. These waves are similar to the concentric waves generated by an object dropped into the water.

Usually tsunamis move entirely across an ocean to the...
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