Natural Disaster

Topics: Emergency management Pages: 5 (1396 words) Published: July 28, 2008
Natural Disasters

With the tropical climate and unstable landforms, coupled with high population density, poverty, illiteracy and lack of adequate infrastructure, India is one of the most vulnerable developing countries to suffer very often from various Natural Disasters, viz. flood, cyclone, earthquake,forest fire, drought, etc. Asia tops the list of casualties due to natural disasters. Space technology plays a crucial role in efficient mitigation of disasters. Communication satellite provides disaster warning and relief mobilization, Earth observation satellite provides required database for predisaster preparedness programmes and post-disaster preparedness programmes. They provide comprehensive, synoptic and multi temporal coverage of large areas in real time and at frequent intervals Forest fire has deadly threatened human lives, fortune and ecosystem. The main reason for this is limitation of traditional method and no more scientific way to predict these disasters. We present that the fatal damage by forest fire could be reduced if there are suitable predictions and rapid provision against forest fire using GIS. This GIS is most perfect way for forest fire forecasting as Forest fire had a movement in both spatial and temporal. GIMS (Geographical Information and Modeling System, Kessell -1990) was installed for a management of Forest Fire, which could assign a part by telling the shape of forest fire in real time and help managers of forest fire to take best decision against these disasters. The study strategies are as follows, the investigation of actual forest fire area was first carried out and secondly constructed into GIS DB. Danger index of forest fire was computed based on topographic and meteorological factor in this area an evaluated the relationship between these factors and forest fire. GIS has created opportunities for a more detailed and rapid analysis of natural hazards. GIS database can be used to create elaborate and effective Disaster Management Information System (DMIS). Natural Disasters are inevitable, and Indian subcontinents is prone to all types of Natural Disaster either it is flood, drought, cyclone, earthquakes or forest fires etc. Natural Hazard information should be included routinely in developmental planning and investment projects preparation. They should include cost/benefit analysis of investing in hazard mitigation measures, and weigh them against the losses that are likely to occur if these measures are not taken. GIS can play a role at the following levels: a. National levelb.

Regional levelc.
Medium leveld.
Local levele.
Site investigation scale-
Disasters can be classified in several ways. A possible sub-division of disasters is: 1. Natural Disasters
2. Human Made disasters.
3. Human induced disasters.
The main controlling factor leading to disaster may be
1. meteorologically
2. geomorphologic/geological
3. ecological
4. technological
5. global environmental
6. Extra terrestrial.
Duration of impact and time of forewarning:
1. Strikes within short period ,devastating outcome
2. Slow onset period, equally/serious repercussions.
(SAR) Search, rescue and evacuation processes are carried out immediately after the disaster has struck a certain area or zone. It is the process of identifying the location of disaster victims. The basic aim is to ensure the survival of the maximum possible number of victims. It generally involves local people who are well versed with local terrain and can be instrumental also. Traditionally, due to lack of technology and scientific approach, it was difficult to carry out the SAR operation. There are techniques available, like remote sensing thro’ satellite imagery and GIS , which help to identify areas that are disaster prone, zoning them according to risk magnitudes, inventory populations and assets at risk, and simulating damage scenarios as they provide instant access to information required for management decision. Definition...
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