Native Americans in the 19th and 20th Centuries

Topics: Native Americans in the United States, United States, Sitting Bull Pages: 5 (1739 words) Published: March 30, 2014


Native Americans in the 19th and 20th Centuries

Department of History
Guilford Technical Community College

Table of Contents
I Introduction………………………………………………………….P. 4 II Treaties Involving the Native Americans…………………………...P. 4 III Military Actions Involving the Native Americans…………………P. 7 IV Policies Involving the Native Americans………………………….P. 10 V Conclusion………………………………………………………….P. 12 VI Bibliography……………………………………………………….P. 13

I Introduction
The term Native American means just what it says. These people were the people that were Native to the land when the first European settlers arrived here. These first settlers were not interested in taking away what belonged to the natives. They were not concerned with trying to change them to become more “civilized”. The early settlers were more interested in learning from them and trading with them for their survival in this new and untamed land. This would not always be the case though. As time progressed hostilities exploded between the Native Americans and the settlers. There were many policies and treaties placed upon the Indians, and when they revolted against these things military actions were what made them accept the fate that they did not want to accept. II Treaties Involving Native Americans

Treaties were put in place supposedly to protect the Native Americans. Unfortunately they were mainly used as a way for the white man to take over the Indian’s land and hunting grounds. A lot of the time these treaties were ignored all together by the government that put them in place, and more often than not they were misunderstood by the Indians. The most common misunderstanding was that the Indians thought that they were just selling the rights to their land and not actually selling the land.

Native Americans were considered to be citizens of their tribes and the tribes were considered to be a separate nation within the US. There were hundreds of treaties between the US government and the Indian tribes. These treaties essentially stated that if the Indians gave up their land they would receive goods, cash payments, and assurance that no more demands would be made of them. Some of these treaties included protection of the tribes by the US military from other tribes that were hostile towards certain tribes. The tribes that had treaties that involved protection were mainly located in the South. When the Civil War started these tribes lost their protection due to the fact that troops were needed in fighting the war. Being that these tribes were located in the southern United States they joined and entered into treaties with the Confederate States of America. General Benjamin McCulloch and Brigadier General Albert Pike were placed over the Indian Territory of the Confederacy and offered them the protection that they needed.

At the end of the Civil War these tribes were told that their treaties were null and void and they were left without any kind of treaty at all and no protection from the United States. New treaties were then signed between these tribes and the United States government. These treaties included new terms in them. The new terms that were included were that slavery was abolished, homes needed to be provided for freedmen, and more land had to be given up for these new homes for freedmen and other Indians. These treaties also stated that the tribes agreed to recognize the United States government as having exclusive jurisdiction over them and that they will not make any other agreements with any state, nation, or power. If they did this then they would have to renounce their allegiance to the United States.

Most of these treaties were met with resistance by the Native Americans because of the fact that they were misunderstood or because the government did not hold up their end of the treaty in providing the goods or cash payments they were promised. Because of their refusal to leave their lands, difference in cultures, and the white man’s...
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