Nationalism in Latin American History

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Nationalism
1.
In the wake of neocolonialism, Latin Americans remade the nativist rhetoric of the past to push a new nationalist cultural and economic agenda. I. Nationalism
1. Latin American nations had been defined by their internal diversity 1. Transculturation
2. Racial mixing
2. Europeans had associated Latin American difference with a negative meaning 3. Nativism challenged this attitude
4. Nativism faded after independence
3. New nationalism was another wave of nativism with strong economic agenda 4. Who were nationalists?
5. Often urban, middle class
6. Mixed-race or recent immigrants
7. Benefitted less from export boom
5. Nationalism challenged the supposed superiority of European culture 8. Reinterpretation of Latin American difference as positive 9. Use of local cultural forms to define that difference 6. Critique of foreign intervention

10. Military intervention
11. Economic power
7. Ethnic nationalism
12. Differs from U.S. “civic nationalism”
13. Employs signs of ethnic identity
1. Foods
2. Dance
3. Clothing
1. Celebrates racial mixing
1. Adaptation to Latin American environment
2. Sometimes as improvement — best of all races 3. Nicolás Guillen
1. Premier exponent of Afro-Cuban identity
2. “Ballad of Two Grandfathers”
3. Poems sometimes mimicked Afro-Cuban speech 1. Many writers use indigenous and Afro-Cuban themes 1. Alejo Carpentier (Cuba)
2. Ciro Alegría (Peru)
3. Miguel ángel Asturias (Guatemala)
I. Nationalists Take Power
1. Mexican Revolution
1. Díaz had ruled for 34 years by 1910
2. Reformers back Francisco Madero
1. Madero sought only more power for elites in Díaz government 2. Madero was jailed and exiled
1. Madero radicalizes, proposes returning indigenous lands 2. Emiliano Zapata
1. From indigenous community of Anenecuilo
2. Lost land to sugar plantations
3. Allied his movement with Madero
4. His image — sombrero, mustache, horse — become iconic of Revolution 5. One of many local leaders moving against the government 1. Madero goes into exile in 1911

1. Díaz unseated by a general, killed
2. Years of upheaval, multiple armies fighting at once 1. Pancho Villa
1. Northern Mexico
2. Army comprised of cowboys, miners, railroad workers, oil workers 3. Very different from Zapata’s southern indigenous rebellion 1. Constitutionalists
1. Third movement along with Villa and Zapata
2. Urban, middle class
3. Drafted a new constitution in 1917
4. More typical of Latin American nationalists
5. May be considered the “winners” of the revolution 1. Constitution of 1917
1. Article 27 reclaims oil rights for nation from foreign companies 2. Paved the way for villages to recover common lands (ejidos) 3. Division of large landholdings, distribution to landless peasants 4. Article 123 – labor regulations

5. Limited privileges of foreigners
6. Curbed Catholic church
1. No longer could hold land
2. Limits to number of clergy
3. Clergy could not wear ecclesiastical clothes in the street 4. Clergy could not teach primary school
1. 7. Defeated Villa and Zapata
2. Fought off Catholic traditionalist “Cristero” rebellion 3. Created single-party political system
1. Remained in power as...
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