National Toll Collection System

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Transport and Telecommunication

Vol.9, No 2, 2008

Transport and Telecommunication, 2008, Volume 9, No 2, 24–38 Transport and Telecommunication Institute, Lomonosov 1, Riga, LV-1019, Latvia

Motor Transport Institute Jagiellońska Str. 80, Warsaw, 03–301,Poland Phone: +48 228113231 ex. 134. E-mail: The paper refers to some problems of worldwide applications in electronic toll collection systems for motorways and expressways. According to Directive 2004/52/EC, these systems should use one or more of the following technologies: satellite positioning, mobile communications using the GSM-GPRS standard (reference GSM TS 03.60/23.060) and 5, 8 GHz microwave technology. Authors have analysed the systems, which meet these requirements, especially the states as follows: The United States of America, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Austria, Czech Republic, France, Norway and Germany. As a result of the analysis, it has turned out that only system using satellite positioning technology and mobile communications (GSM/GPRS) is the best toll solution of unique capabilities and this kind of technologically sophisticated system should be implemented in Poland. Author will present the initial structure of GSM/GPS based Toll Collection System for Poland. This type of system has many advantages. The first one is absence of the need for new road infrastructure (gantries); operators can keep using the existing infrastructure. System works without toll booths, extra lanes, speed restrictions or complex structures along toll roads. The second one is much greater flexibility in defining or changing payment by simply redefining the "virtual" toll areas. It means ability to adapt easily and quickly to changes in charge parameters (road classes, vehicle types, emission levels, times slots, etc.). The third advantage is the system’s ability to support other value-added services on the same technology platform. Keywords: Electronic Toll Collection (ECT), microwave technology, on-board unit (OBU)

1. Introduction
Electronic Toll Collection (ETC) is a fairly mature technology that allows for electronic payment for motorways and expressways. An ETC system is able to determine if a car is registered in a toll payment program, alerts enforcers of toll payment violations, and debits the participating account. ETC is fast becoming a globally accepted method of toll collection, a trend greatly aided by the growth of interoperable ETC technologies. Some of the benefits of ETC include: – fuel savings; – reduced mobile emissions by reducing or eliminating deceleration, waiting times, and acceleration; – possible reduced drain on public monies, if the system is more self-sustaining or if the system was built/run via a public-private partnership arrangement. The EC's target is for all vehicles to be equipped with an ETC box, linked to a standard contract for the owner/operator. At the end of each billing period, a single invoice would be issued, covering journeys through any of the member states. All new electronic toll collection systems brought into service on or after the 1st of January, 2007 shall, for carrying out electronic toll transactions, to use one or more of the following technologies: satellite positioning, mobile communications using the GSM-GPRS standard (reference GSM TS 03.60/23.060) and 5,8 GHz microwave technology. The above mentioned conditions are included in Directive 2004/52/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of the 29th of April, 2004 on the interoperability of electronic road toll systems in the Community [4]. The requirements of that directive will be implemented in Poland based on the Act from the 28th of July, 2005 on changing act of public roads and some other acts [11]. It stressed that toll collecting charge institutions should be able to carry out electronic toll...
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