The state of Tamil Nadu boasts of a rich flora and fauna. To preserve the rich natural heritage of the state many National parks and wildlife sanctuaries have been set up over a period of time. These National parks and sanctuaries not only help in the protection of the invaluable animal and plant life but also attract a large number of visitors.
The National parks of India are IUCN category II protected areas. India's first national park was established in 1936 as Hailey National Park, now known as Jim Corbett National Park. By 1970, India only had five national parks. In 1972, India enacted the Wildlife Protection Act and Project Tiger to safeguard the habitats of conservation reliant species. Further federal legislation strengthening protections for wildlife was introduced in the 1980s. As of April 2007, there were 96 national parks. All national park lands then encompassed a total 38,029.18 km (14,683.15 sq mi) km, comprising 1.16% of India's total surface area. A total of 166 national parks have been authorized. Plans are underway to establish the remaining scheduled parks.
All of India's national parks are listed below alongside their home state or territory, area and the date that they were established. overview of all Indian protected areas. Tamil Nadu has 5 declared National Parks with a total area over 307.84 km (118.86 sq mi), covering only 0.24% of the state. This is the third lowest % area covered of all Indian states and Union territories
1. Indira Gandhi National Park (previously: Aanamalai National Park), 117.10 km (45.21 sq mi), Est. 1989.
2. Mudumalai National Park 103.24 km (39.86 sq mi), Est. 1990
3. Mukurthi National Park 78.46 km (30.29 sq mi), Est. 1982
4. Gulf of Mannar Marine National Park 6.23 km (2.41 sq mi), Est. 1980
5. Guindy National Park 2.82 km (1.09 sq mi), Est. 1976.
1.Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park
Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary and National Park (IGWLS&NP) is a protected area located in the Anaimalai Hills of Pollachi, Valparai and Udumalpet taluks of Coimbatore District, Tamilnadu state, South India.The park is named after Prime Minister Indira Gandhi who visited the park on October 7, 1961. It is often called "Topslip", a village in the northeast corner of the park which is the main visitor center. This name is derived from the local 19th century practice of sliding Teak timber logs down the hills from here.
By the mid 1800s, large tracts of Valparai Plateau in the Anamalais were under intense tea or coffee plantations after deforestation of the natural forests. By 1866 two-thirds of the plantations were owned by Europeans and the remaining by Indians from coastal towns. Since most native inhabitants either refused to work or were inefficient workers, labour for plantations was brought from the plains of Tamil Nadu to clear forests and grow coffee.
Some parts of the forest however were reserved for timber including large areas around Top Slip. This part of the Western Ghats, under the Bombay Presidency were exploited extensively for teak which was supplied to the Bombay Dockyard for ship-building and later for railroad ties. In 1855, this area came under sustainable forest management for teak plantations by the pioneering efforts Douglas Hamilton and Dr. H. F. Cleghorn of the new Tamil Nadu Forest Department. In the early 1900s, protection of the Karian Sholas was also ensured (Johnsingh 2006a). The area was notified as Anaimalai Wildlife Sanctuary in 1974. of its unique habitats at 3 places - Karian Shola, Grass hills, Manjampatti Valley were notified as a National Park in 1989. The 108 square kilometres (42 sq mi) National Park is the core area of the 958 square kilometres (370 sq mi) Indira Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary. IGWS was declared a Project Tiger tiger reserve in 2008.The Park and the Sanctuary is under...