HEALTH IMPACTS AND PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS
In the Australian Bureau of Statistics in 1997 10,000 people had prevalence to substance abuse disorders.
Dependence - has replaced the word addiction
Harmful use has replaced the word Abuse
Australia is ranked 15TH in the world with Alcohol Abuse. France is ranked No. 1
Drug use disorders overall substance abuse 18-25 21.5% males 10.6% females
Alcohol abuse is most prevalent in these age groups, although female figures are consistently lower.
30% of the Australia Population smoke, 99% of these are also substance abusers.
It should be noted that most substance abusers poly drug use. Although heroin users don't as a rule drink alcohol when on heroin (alcohol and heroin can cause a fatal overdose.)
Cocaine (professional drug) use in Melbourne has been minimal, because Cocaine makes people hyper alert (there has not been a Cocaine overdose in Melbourne). It appears that Cocaine is widely spread in the hospitality industry to keep people AWAKE!
HEROIN is the opposite it slows you down.
Heroin is a major concern with young mother's using/or expectant mothers, Expectant mothers on heroin can have premature spontaneous abortion. Heroin users that a pregnant may have development delays. Heroin users are usually irritable and agitated and have extreme feeding problems. With feeding there is also the nutrition issue. A large percentage of young children who's parents or parent are heroin abusers may become orphans.
Heroin addicts that are mothers have a big affect on all people around them not just themselves.
RISKS WITH TAKING DRUGS
AMPHETAMINES & HALLUCINOGENS:People take risks driving
Although these do not become addictive.
When withdrawing from amphetamines there is a tendency to become violent., be grandiose, expansive, aggressive, paranoid and suspicious. Violence is difficult to control and may be over the top.
LSD & ECSTASY:these are quite easy to obtain and also cheap,($5-$25) the major health concern with these is dehydration and heart failure, there is also a risk of cerebal haemorrhage.
HEROIN in 1991 their were 49 deaths for the year
1999 there is an average of 1 death per day of overdose.
A widely used drug to withdraw from heroin is Naltraxone also used is Narcan these are opioid receptors. Heroin is a long lasting drug in the system it can last between 8 and 10 hrs. In the Northern Suburbs there is DROP (Direct Response Overdose Prevention), any person who has overdosed is recommended to have debriefing with this service.
ALCOHOL ABUSE is a major health issue. Alcohol abusers not only abuse the alcoholic beverages as we know but also quiet a number of other substances as alcohol alternatives these being:-
Vanilla Essence (a popular alternative)
Oranges injected with vodka
Alcohol swabs soaked in water (prisoner use these a lot)
ALCOHOL WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS
THESE SYMPTOMS USUALLY OCCUR 8-12 HOURS AFTER LAST DRINK:-
Loss of appetite
Nausea, flushed face, thirst
Inability to sleep
SEVERE WITHDRAWAL SYMPTOMS ARE:-
Death due to seizures
WITHDRAWAL AFTER 24-48HRS:-
WITHDRAWAL AFTER 48 HOURS:-
IF THESE ARE NOT TREATED PATIENT MAY GO INTO A
A COMA AND DIE
PATIENT WANTING TO WITHDRAW FROM ALCOHOL SHOULD START BY DRINKING LESS BY:
Starting with soft drinks
Use standard drinks
WHEN MONITORING A PATIENT THAT IS WITHDRAWING...