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Narration (1)

The narrator
• ►Who speaks? • The narrator as a link between the author and the reader.







The complete narrative chain

Real author

Implied Narrator Narratee Implied Real author reader reader

Reality Fiction Fiction Fiction Fiction Reality

Types of narration
• 3 ways to analyse narration:
– Relationship narrator ↔ story – Relationship narrator ↔ characters – Relationship narrator ↔ time scheme of the story

Relationship narrator ↔ story
• Narrator TAKES PART in the story  intradiegetic narrator • Narrator DOES NOT TAKE PART in the story  Extradiegetic narrator

Relationship narrator ↔ characters
• Narrator IS a character in the story  homodiegetic narrator

• Narrator IS NOT a character in the story  heterodiegetic narrator • Narrator TELLS HIS/HER OWN story  autodiegetic narrator

Relationship narrator ↔ time scheme
• Ulterior narration: Narrator tells events after they happen (most common case) • Simultaneous narration: Narrator tells events as they happen (Facebook) • Anterior narration: Narrator tells events before they happen (prophecy)

The narrator’s functions (1)
• As narrating agent
– Relates what happens – Establishes the setting – Reports the characters words/thoughts • • • • • Direct discourse Free direct discourse Indirect discourse Free indirect discourse Narrative report

The narrators functions (2)
• As commentator
– Omniscient narrator supplementing a character’s vision – Generalisation – Comment on the narration itself

Narratorial presence
• Obtrusive or unobtrusive? • Reliable or unreliable?

Narrating agency and reader response
• Self-effacing narrator  dramatisation / identification

• Obtrusive narrator  critical distance

Narration (2)

• I/ Identifying the narrator • II/ Characterising the narratorial presence • III/ Place of the narrator in the narrative chain • IV/ Place of the narrator in...
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