The US Government’s National Nanotechnology Initiative defines nanotechnology as “the understanding and control of matter at dimensions of roughly 1 to 100 nanometres, where unique phenomena enable novel applications.” A nanometre is a millionth of a millimetre - to bring that scale into context, a nanometre is the amount a man's beard grows in the time it takes him to raise the razor to his face.
Nanotechnology refers to a field of applied science and technology whose theme is the control of matter on the atomic and molecular scale, generally 100 nanometres or smaller, and the fabrication of devices or materials that lie within that size range.
An estimated global research and development investment of nearly $9 billion per year is anticipated to lead to new medical treatments and tools; more efficient energy production, storage and transmission; better access to clean water; more effective pollution reduction and prevention; and stronger, lighter materials.
How does Nanotechnology works?
Atoms and molecules are the fundamental building blocks of the material world – using nanotechnology scientists can start affecting the properties of materials directly, making them harder or lighter or more durable. In some cases, making things smaller changes their properties—a chemical might take on a new colour, or start to conduct electricity when altered at the nanoscale.
Nanotechnology can essentially change the internal structure of compounds. For example, pure carbon can take form of either a diamond or graphite. By arranging carbon into precise nanometre-scale structures, a new product is created that is up to thirty times stronger than steel, yet is one sixth the weight. This form of carbon is called a “nanotube” and is one of the earliest forms of nanotechnology.
There are two main approaches used in nanotechnology: "bottom-up" approach is when materials and devices are built from molecular components which... [continues]
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