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  • Topic: Nanotechnology, Nanoelectronics, Transistor
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Nanoelectronics refer to the use of nanotechnology on electronic components, especially transistors. Although the term nanotechnology is generally defined as utilizing technology less than 100nm in size, nanoelectronics often refer to transistor devices that are so small that inter-atomic interactions and quantum mechanical properties need to be studied extensively. As a result, present transistors (such as CMOS90 from TSMC or Pentium 4 Processors from Intel) do not fall under this category, even though these devices are manufactured under 90nm or 65nm technology. This paper is all about the use of nanotechnology in electronics The aim of Nanoelectronics is to process, transmit and store information by taking advantage of properties of matter that are distinctly different from macroscopic properties. The relevant length scale depends on the phenomena investigated: it is a few nm for molecules that act like transistors or memory devices, can be 999 nm for quantum dot where the spin of the electron is being used to process information. Microelectronics, even if the gate size of the transistor is 50 nm, is not an implementation of nanoelectronics, as no new qualitative physical property related to reduction in size are being exploited. Introduction:


fig no:1 nanoelectronics
Nanoelectronics are sometimes considered as disruptive technology because present candidates are significantly different from traditional transistors. Some of these candidates include: hybrid molecular/semiconductor electronics, one dimensional nanotubes/nanowires, or advanced molecular electronics. The sub-voltage and deep-sub-voltage nanoelectronics are specific and important fields of R&D, and the appearance of new ICs operating near theoretical limit (fundamental, technological, design methodological, architectural, algorithmic) on energy consumption per 1 bit processing is inevitably. The important case of fundamental ultimate limit for logic operation is the reversible computing.Although all of these hold immense promises for the future, they are still under development and will most likely not be used for manufacturing any time soon. This is the future of nanotechnology. What is Nanoelectronics?

Semiconductor electronics have seen a sustained exponential decrease in size and cost and a similar increase in performance and level of integration over the last thirty years (known as Moore's Law). The Silicon Roadmap is laid out for the next ten years. After that, either economical or physical barriers will pose a huge challenge. The former is related to the difficulty of making a profit in view of the exorbitant costs of building the necessary manufacturing capabilities if present day technologies are extrapolated. The latter is a direct consequence of the shrinking device size, leading to physical phenomena impeding the operation of current devices. Quantum and coherence effects, high electric fields creating avalanche dielectric breakdowns, heat dissipation problems in closely packed structures as well as the non-uniformity of dopant atoms and the relevance of single atom defects are all roadblocks along the current road of miniaturization.These phenomena are characteristic for structures a few nanometers in size and, instead of being viewed as an obstacle to future progress might form the basis of post-silicon information processing technologies. It is even far from clear that electrons will be the method of choice for signal processing or computation in the long term - quantum computing, spin electronics, optics or even computing based on (nano-) mechanics are actively being discussed. Nanoelectronics thus needs to be understood as a general field of research aimed at developing an understanding of the phenomena characteristic of nanometer sized objects with the aim of exploiting them for information processing purposes. Specifically, by electronics we mean the handling of complicated electrical wave forms for...
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