NANO ELECTRO-MECHANICAL SYSTEMS
1. Jignesh D Mehta email@example.com
2. Amit R Tanchak firstname.lastname@example.org
NEMS (Nano Electro- mechanical Systems) a sophisticated branch of technology which is capable of realizing all the long envisioned goals of modern science through the help of already nurtured branches ,MEMS(micro electro mechanical systems) and nano technology. Briefing about MEMS and NEMS we can say that MEMS is a new and exciting area in mechanical engineering which uses the technology developed in the fabrication of integrated circuits in order to make micro-scale mechanical devices. Where NEMS requires circuits that are to be fabricated on nano scale. Major requirements of these nano devices to be met are preconditioned in order to attain optimization of the resources used.
Nanotechnology is likely to be extremely important in the future as it allows materials to be built up atom by atom. This can eventually lead to the development of new materials that are better suited for the current requirements. .The list of materials being developed commercially using nanotechnology is likely to grow at a very fast rate. one such advancement using nano technology is its application in the field of electromechanical systems and hence giving it a name “NANO ELECTRO MECHANICAL SYSTEMS”(NEMS).
2. What is Electro-mechanical System?
Electro mechanical systems (EMS), regardless of scale, generally consist of two integrated components. The mechanical parts include moveable structures such as mirrors, beams, cantilevers and gears which respond to applied forces by deflection or vibration.
FIG.1 Schematic representation of a multiterminal electromechanical device.
Figure 1 depicts a generic multiterminal electromechanical device, where electromechanical transducers provide input mechanical stimuli to the system, and read out its mechanical response. At additional control terminals, electrical signals—either quasistatic or time varying—can be applied, and subsequently be converted by the control transducers into forces to perturb the properties of the mechanical element. NEMS devices fit the above-described general portrayal.
We can further classify the existing NEMS as resonant and quasistatic. In this review, our focus will primarily be on the so-called resonant devices as most initial NEMS applications involve these. The input transducers in resonant NEMS conconvert electrical energy into mechanical energy by exciting a resonant mode of the mechanical element. The mechanical response, namely the displacement of the element, is transduced back into electrical signals. In the resonant mode of operation, external perturbations can be regarded as the control signals, since they modify the vibrational characteristics, such as the resonance frequency v0/2p or the Q of the vibrating element. We shall discuss electromechanical transduction mechanisms in NEMS and give examples of measurements of external perturbations in Sec. IV.
3. NEMS & MEMS
The electronic elements, such as small motors and integrated circuits act as transducers to transform mechanical motion into optical or electrical signals and vice versa. Scaling these down, there are two distinct levels of EMS: MEMS and NEMS
MEMS represent the marriage of semiconductor processing to mechanical engineering - at a very small scale. And it is a field that has grown enormously during the past decade. MEMS have been studied for decades and are now finding increasing application in industrial and commercial sectors. While MEMS technology is technically outside the nanotechnology domain, we include it as many researchers consider it as an integral part of the nanotechnology field. Indeed, it is expected that the functionalities shown by MEMS could also be performed by NEMS. So while there are some distinctions the technical maturity of MEMS provides some short-term potential and some insights into long-term...
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