Nano Dentistry

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  • Topic: Nanotechnology, Dentistry, Nanomaterials
  • Pages : 7 (1150 words )
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  • Published : September 24, 2012
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   Nanodentistry|  | |
[10]

Nanodentistry will make possible the maintenance of near-perfect oral health through the use of nanornaterials, biotechnology including tissue engineering and nanorobotics. Oral health and disease trends may change the focus on specific diagnostic and treatment modalities. 

Nanodentistry as bottom-up approach [7]

1. Local anaesthesia 

In the era of nanodentistry a colliodal suspension containing millions of active analgesic micron-size dental robots will be instilled on the patient's gingiva. After contacting the surface of crown or mucosa, the ambulating nanorobots reach the pulp via the gingival sulcus, lamina propria and dentinal tubules.

Once installed in the pulp, the analgesic dental robots may be commanded by the dentist to shut down all sensitivity in any particular tooth that requires treatment. After oral procedures are completed, the dentist orders the nanorobots to restore all sensation, to relinquish control of nerve traffic and to egress from the tooth by similar pathways used for ingress.

2. Hypersensitivity cure 

Dentin hypersensitivity may be caused by changes in pressure transmitted hydrodynamically to the pulp. This is based on the fact that hypersensitive teeth have 8 times higher surface density of dentinal tubules and tubules with diameters twice as large than nonsensitive teeth. Dental nanorobots could selectively and precisely occlude selected tubules in minutes, using native biological materials, offering patients a quick and permanent cure.

3. Nanorobotic dentifrice [dentifrobots] 

Subocclusal dwelling nanorobotic dentifrice delivered by mouthwash or toothpaste could patrol all supragingival and subgingival surfaces atleast once a day, metabolising trapped organic matter into harmless and odorless vapors and performing continuous calculus debridement.

These invisibly small dentifrobots [1-10 micon], crawling at 1-10 microns/sec, would be inexpensive, purely mechanical devices, that would safely desactivate themselves if swallowed and would be programmed with strict occlusal avoidance protocol.

4. Dental durability and cosmetics 

Tooth durability and appearance may be improved by replacing upper enamel layers with pure sapphire and diamond which can be made more fracture resistant as nanostructured composites, possibly including embedded carbon nanotubes.

5. Orthodontic treatment 

Orthodontic nanorobots could directly manipulate the periodontal tissues, allowing rapid and painless tooth straightening, rotating and vertical repositioning within minutes to hours.

6. Photosensitizers and carriers 

Quantum dots can be used as photosensitizers and carriers. They can bind to the antibody present on the surface of the target cell and when stimulated by UV light, they can give rise to reactive oxygen species and thus will be lethal to the target cell.

7. Diagnosis of oral cancer 

NANO ELECTROMECHANICAL SYSTEMS(NEMS)

Convert (bio) chemical to electrical signal 

CANTILEVER ARRAY SENSORS

Ultrasensitive mass detection technology: 

Picogram (10-12)-bacterium

Femtogram (10-15)-virus

Attogram (10-18)-DNA

MULTIPLEXING MODALITY

Sensing large numbers of different biomolecules simultaneously in real time

APPLICATIONS

* Diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and cancer
* Detection ofbacteria, fimgi and viruses

8. Treatment of oral cancer 

NANOMATERIALS FOR BRACHYTHERAPY

BrachySilTM (Sivida, Australia) delivers 32P, clinical trial

DRUG DELIVERY ACROSS THE BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER / More effective treatment of brain tumours, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's in development

NANOVECTORSFORGENE THERAPY

Non-viral gene delivery systems 

Nanodentistry as top-down approach [11]

1. Nanocomposites

Nanoproducts Corporation has successfully manufactured nonagglomerated discrete nanoparticles that are homogeneously distributed in resins or coatings to produce nanocomposites. The nanofiller used includes an...
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