Myra Levine Theory Critique

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Running head: Theory Critique of Conservation Model

Theory Critique of Levine’s Conservation Model
Dana Carroll
Nur 600
February 24, 2013
Jacqueline Saleeby

Theory Critique of Levine’s Conservation Model
Introduction
Myra Levine proposed a grand theory of energy conservation. Using the Chinn and Kramer Model for critique, this paper will describe the theory reviewing purpose, concepts, definitions, relationships, structure, assumptions, and rationale for selection. Then, the theory will be critically examined for clarity, simplicity, generalizability, accessibility, and importance. Energy conservation provides a unique framework for education and current practice. Well-defined concepts of environment, health, nurse, and patient can guide research. However, the theory has limited application to some areas such as health promotion and disease prevention. Further refinement of this theory would beneficially develop the knowledge base of nursing, guide practice, and contribute to favorable outcomes. Description of Theory

Purpose
Myra Levine was an experienced nurse and teacher who sought to educate medical-surgical students about major concepts in nursing. Levine wanted the focus of nursing to be patient-centered instead of task-oriented (Sitzman & Eichelberger, 2011). Also, like other early nursing scholars, Levine wanted to distance nursing practice from medicine (Meleis, 2012). Trophicognosis is a term Levine invented to replace medical diagnosis. Trophicognosis referred to nursing judgement arrived at by the scientific method; according to Meleis (2012) trophicognosis was a “useful beginning for the use of the nursing process” (p. 291). Concepts

Levine based her theoretical concepts on her personal philosophy. Levine viewed man as “an ever-changing organism in constant interaction with an ever-changing environment” (Levine, 1969, p.93). Levine believed individuals respond to their environment in a systematic way based on their perceptual systems. Therefore, Levine conceptualized nursing based on the idea that “an appreciation of these responses will conserve the patient’s resources, alter his environment to fit his resources, and be an extension of his perceptual systems when his own are impaired” (Levine, 1969, p. 93). Conservation is unique to Levine’s theory and is the primary concept (Sitzman & Eichelberger, 2011). Levine identified four conservation principles as a framework for nursing interventions and established the goal of conservation as adaptation (Meleis, 2012). Other important concepts included wholeness, organismic responses, adaptation, integrity, and perceptual systems. Definitions

The conservation model clearly defines major concepts related to patients, environment, adaptation and energy conservation. Levine did not think it was an accident that the word “health” was derived from the Anglo-saxon word for “whole” (Levine, 1969). Levine saw patients as complete persons made up of dynamic systems that continuously seek a state of balance. Levine viewed health and disease as patterns of adaptive change along a continuum of dynamic processes within a person’s unique pathophysiology and environment (Levine, 1966). Both internal and external environments were described; the external environment was categorized as perceptual, operational, or conceptual. Conservation of energy was defined as the goal, or outcome, of nursing; the concept of conservation included maintaining a person’s social, personal, and structural integrity (Meleis, 2012). Relationships

According to Levine, the patient’s health is dependent on the nurse-supported process of adaptation (Sitzman & Eichelberger, 2011). Nurses function as an extension of the patient’s perceptual systems, but work to end the dependence as quickly as possible (Levine, 1966). Structure

The conservation model follows a linear progression from desynchronization to energy conservation to adaptation. As a patient-focused and goal...
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