Topics: Fungus, Mycorrhiza, Plant Pages: 3 (802 words) Published: October 25, 2012
* Mycorrhiza is a specialized fungus in the soil which forms close associations with the roots of a vascular plants

* In other temperate and boreal successional systems arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi are the primary mycorrhizal associate in early succession, whereas in older soils the main associates are ectomycorrhizal fungi (Piotrowski, 2008).

Arbuscualar Mycorrhizae:
Arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) is the predominant and ancestral type of mycorrhiza in land plants. It’s root cells have arbuscules (tree like structure, highly branched hyphae inside plant cells) and vesicles in most species Its occurrence in a vast majority of land plants and early-diverging lineages of liverworts suggests that the origin of AM probably coincided with the origin of land plants. Classes include Archaeosporales, Diversisporales, Glomerales, Paraglomerales, part of the phylum Globermycota, and part of the kingdom fungi (species grow Arbuscular Mycorrhizae) * Fossil evidence and DNA sequence analysis by mycologists show arbuscular mycorrhizae first appeared approximately 400-460 million years ago. Arbuscular mycorrhizas are found in 90% of all plant families, and occur in many crop species. How it Works:

* Plant nutrients which are concentrated with nutrients are taken by hyphae and then released into the root cells of vascular plants. Nutrients can also be stored in the root of the fungus and used in the future when the nutrients are needed, such as low temperatures or season fluctuations.

* Arbuscular mycorrhizas are mycorrhizas whose hyphae enter into the plant cells, producing balloon-like vesicles or dichotomously-branching arbuscules. Arbuscular mycorrhizae are known to be heterkaryon, goining through both asexual and sexual reproduction.

* The hyphae of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi produce the glycoprotein glomalin, which may be one of the major stores of carbon in the soil. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi have (possibly) been asexual...
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