How have Mycobacterium tuberculosis evolved in response to antibiotic use? Section 1 P1: (Words: 177)
Since antibiotics has been discovered in 1920 by a Scottish microbiologist Alexander Fleming, people began to have access to treatments for infectious diseases (Bright). However, over time these M. tuberculosis has evolved and became resistant to antibiotics through constant use and incorrect usage (Bright). It is important to solve this health issue because it has created a serious problem to the people who are infected by diseases since these antibiotics are no longer effective. It is estimated that approximately 77,000 people were killed by resistant M. tuberculosis in the United States (Bright) and the medical cost to treat infections with antibiotic resistance has reached as high up to 44 billion dollars every year (Larsen). In the article of “Antibiotics Resistance” by Pushpa Larsen, roughly about 70 percent of those 2 million people in the United States who has became infected with diseases within a year were resistant to antibiotics that was being commonly treated in the hospitals (Larsen). With an overuse and misuse of antibiotics by the human population, it increases the chance of M. tuberculosis to evolve and have the ability to become resistant. Section 1 P2: (Words: 482)
As people take antibiotics constantly and antibiotics that treats for a variety of M. tuberculosis, over a period of time it usually results in M. tuberculosis being resistant, and the only way to solve this is to change the human behavior. Since M. tuberculosis can reproduce rapidly within hours or days, the big population of the M. tuberculosis causes the increase of adaptation to different environment (Bright). The ‘fast generation’ mentioned in the article of “Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance,” claimed that with such massive population, it also can rise the possibility of mutation in genes which causes variation (Bright). With having more chance of resulting variation among these huge quantity of population in M. tuberculosis, there will be more chance of these M. tuberculosis with mutation to be selected for the environment due to natural selection. With M. tuberculosis being able to use specific tools gained from the gene, each can perform different methods of being resistance to the antibiotic’; for example, by taking ‘a gene from another bacterium’ (Bright). Scientists measure the percentage of M. Tuberculosis by using a special tool called, spectrophotometer to shoot out light and count the percentage of M. tuberculosis present in the tube. A certain amount of M. Tuberculosis will be added into the tube and place it inside the spectrophotometer to measure the percentage of population present in the tube by using a specific light of wave length with a scale pointing to how much light is being present (Ferguson, 2012). With having a higher population in the culture, the less light it will be shown in the spectrophotometer (Ferguson, 2012). When antibiotics are added into the tube, those that are not resistant to the antibiotics are being killed, but those that are resistant survive (Ferguson, 2012). The measurement will show the amount of population being resistant to antibiotics by the scale shown in the spectrophotometer (Ferguson, 2012). There are no treatments to stop the M. tuberculosis from being resistant to antibiotics. However, we can help solve the problem of more bacteria being resistant to antibiotics by decreasing the amount use of antibiotics and taking antibiotics in the full cycle as prescribed by the doctor (Bright). The amount of antibiotics that people take is about 235 million doses a year, and approximately ‘one third to one half’ of the antibiotics being taken are not needed (Larsen). A research has found that patients have been demanding antibiotics from doctors even though the patient’s cold or other infections does not require any antibiotic use (Bright). The antibiotic misuse by people is that patients...
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