Through metaphysics, the achievement of an explanation for the fundamental nature of being and the world itself is attempted. General topics of discussion include the subjects of truth and knowledge, reality, the self, God, human nature, and free will. Some questions to be considered are things such as what are the limitations of knowledge? How can one determine what is reality? What is the self? What is God? What is natural behaviour? Do humans have free will? As for all the theories concerning these topics and questions there is no solid and unarguable evidence to prove theories correct. This is why we can only philosophize and according to Occam’s razor, the theory with the least amount of assumptions is the correct one.
Knowledge is often considered to be reality but one must consider the limitations of human knowledge. Knowledge is a posterior, it is all that is perceived, perception is the information that is obtained through the senses. Therefore, knowledge is limited to what can be perceived through the senses. It is impossible to prove whether or not there is reality that is beyond what can be perceived by the senses that humans are limited to. The perceptions of the senses are signals interpreted by the brain, it is these signals to the brain that determine everything that we hear, see, smell, taste, and feel. This means that it would be possible for an external source to be providing signals to the brain causing it to falsely perceive the world around it as this external source wishes it to. The world around us could be a simulated reality that is non-existent, but whether the world as it is perceived is reality or not should really be of no concern. The realness of the reality we perceive is irrelevant because we have no way of determining whether or not perception is reality, so to question perception is pointless. The only thing that is unarguably existent is the self. Descartes...