Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.
____1.Water is lost to the abiotic parts of the biosphere from the biotic parts by the process of _____. a. precipitation b. photosynthesis c. transpiration d. infiltration
____2.Nitrogen is released to the abiotic parts of the biosphere from the processes of death and _____. a. decay by bacteria b. infiltration of groundwater c. runoff d. lightning in storm clouds
____3.Some birds are known as honey guides because they may be followed by humans to wild beehives. When the humans take honey from the hives, the birds are able to feast on the honey and bees, too. This type of relationship can best be described as _____. a. parasitism b. commensalism c. mutualism d. symbiosis
____4.Starfish live in saltwater ecosystems. Some species live in shallow tidal pools, while others live in the deepest parts of the oceans. This is a description of the _____ of starfish. a. habitat b. community c. niche d. none of these
____5.Cougars are predators that often eat weakened or diseased animals. This is a description of the _____ of cougars. a. habitat b. community c. niche d. none of these
____6.An ecologist who studies how several species in an area interact among each other and with the abiotic parts of the environment is interested in the biological organization level called a(n) _____. a. organism b. population c. community d. ecosystem
____7.An ecologist who studies how several species in an area interact is interested in the biological organization called a(n) _____. a. organism b. population c. community d. ecosystem
____8.Referring to Figure 2-1, suppose 10 000 units of energy are available at the level of the grasses. What is the total number of energy units lost by the time energy reaches the coyote? a. 90 units b. 990 units c. 9900 units d. 9990 units
____9.Referring to Figure 2-1, as matter and energy move from grasses to coyotes, the amount of available energy _____. a. increases b. decreases c. decreases then increases d. increases or decreases but population size remains the same
____10.Referring to Figure 2-1, the relationship between cats and mice could best be described as _____. a. predator-prey b. scavenger-carrion c. parasite-host d. consumer-producer
____11.Referring to Figure 2-1, the coyotes would be considered _____. a. herbivores b. third-order consumers c. second-order consumers d. decomposers
____12.Referring to Figure 2-1, energy flows from _____.
a. coyotes to grasses b. cats to mice c. mice to cats d. coyotes to cats
____13.An uncut lawn becomes a meadow and eventually a forest. This process is an example of _____. a. aphotic zones b. primary succession c. estuary d. secondary succession
____14.A girl notices that her guppies reproduce most when her fish tank water is slightly alkaline. They stop reproducing if the water becomes acidic or if the water becomes too alkaline. This is an example of _____. a. secondary succession b. zones of tolerance and intolerance c. communities d. intertidal zones
____15.The stable ecosystem that develops due to succession _____. a. is called a niche b. is always a forest c. is called a climax community d. never changes
____16.The combined portions of Earth in which all living things exist is called the a. biome. b. community. c. ecosystem. d. biosphere.
____17.All of the members of a particular species that live in one area are called a(an) a. biome. b. population. c. community. d. ecosystem.
____18.Which of the following descriptions about the organization of an ecosystem is correct? a. Communities make up species, which make up populations. b. Populations make up species, which make up communities. c. Species make up...