The rise, the fall and
* Introduction to the project: Page 2
* Introduction: Page 2
* Post WWI Italy: Page 2
* The Fascist movement: Reasons for their rise : Page 3
* The Fascist movement: The take-over: page3
* The beginning: Page 4
* The change:Page 4
* The next step: Page 5
* Mussolini and the “Empire”: Page 6
* Mussolini’s “puppet days” and downfall: Page 6
* The Disgraceful End of Benito Mussolini : Page 8
* The Influence of Fascist Italy on education : Page 8
Introduction to the project
In this essay I am aiming to follow Mussolini’s life in as much detail as I can, in order to pick out what he obviously done right in order to come to power in 20th century Italy. I will also be looking at significant and related dates that show the influence of his reign followed by some to perhaps point out the reasons why he fell from his high throne, leading to the collapse of the “Italian empire”. With this project I aim to increase my understanding of Italy’s most influential leader, improve my research, literacy and presentation skills and most importantly my capability to be and individual learner.
As a result of World War One, Italy had suffered badly and lost 460,000 soldiers. The country was in enormous debt. The army had been heavily defeated and had only had one recognisable victory in 1918. The country believed that it had been promised extra land by Britain and France during the war, but these promises were not kept post-war and no land was handed over. This meant the Italian Government had been ignored.
The post-war governments were weak; parties formed coalitions to maintain strength but because of the different views amongst themselves, they were not able to make decisions. Mussolini set up the Fascist Party and made himself out to be a strong man who held the solution to all of Italy's problems. He made promises of a reconstructed Italy and re-creation of the Roman Empire. During this period there was also a rise in unemployment which led to increasing discontent in many cities across the nation. Mussolini used his newspaper, "Il Popolo d'Italia" to spread his ideology. As unemployment grew and people became more desperate, they turned to Mussolini and he took advantage.
Post WWI Italy
World War I officially ended in Western Europe when the Armistice took effect on November 11, 1918. The aftermath of the war enormously affected the cultural, political and social order in Europe, Asia, Africa and even the areas outside of those which were directly involved in the war. New countries were formed, and many new and old ideologies took a firm hold in people's minds (including Fascism at a later time). According to the Treaty of London, Italy was promised some Land in order to persuade Italy to join the allies. These were: Trentino; Trieste; Southern Tyrol; Istria; Dalmatia; coastal districts of Albania; a share in the division of the Ottoman Empire and of the German colonies in Africa. Although the Italians fought bravely and lost 600,000 men, the territories given to Italy post war were not as many as originally promised. Italy did not get any former German colonies and any land in Asia, Albania and Dalmatia. Italian politicians defined it as a "mutilated victory”. However, they failed to perceive the positive elements of the peace treaty and stressed the negative ones, and so the "mutilated victory" ideology spread, fuelling the Fascist propaganda which also was the key to Benito Mussolini’s rise. During the war, Italy suffered more casualties than Britain but many fewer than France. Furthermore, the social problems Italy was facing post war such as an inflated economy, the large number of crippled and disabled people (who were either soldiers or innocent civilians who could no longer...