Spanish Civil War
1. Mussolini supported the Fascist army of General Franco. Met with Spanish generals before the Civil War started and promised aid (failed to deliver). 2. Sent 80,000 troops during the war.
3. Hoped a Fascist victory would increase his international prestige and his reputation at home. 4. Intervention had the opposite effect. Italian troops were poorly equipped and trained. 5. Franco blamed Italians for some Fascist defeats.
6. Italy drew closer to Germany.
Rome-Berlin Axis – 1936
1. Mussolini becoming more dependent on the Nazis for strength. 2. Nov. 1936 – first treaty with Germany signed by Count Ciano (Foreign Minister and Mussolini’s cousin). 3. European power revolved around an axis connecting Berlin and Rome. 4. 1937 – Italy, Germany and Japan sign the Anti-Comintern Pact. United Fascist countries in their aim to crush the USSR. World War Two
1. Believing a Germany victory inevitable, Mussolini enters war in 1940. 2. Italian invasion of Egypt (from Libya) crushed by British forces. 3. 1941 – Italy loses Abyssinia.
4. Oct. 1940 – Italy invades Greece from Albania – attack defeated. 5. Germany intervenes to prevent Italian defeats.
6. Mussolini deposed but re-installed by Germans in Northern Italy. 7. Executed in 1945.
Pact of Steel 1939
1. March 1939 – Italy issues ultimatum to Albania to accept takeover – tries to bribe King Zog. 2. April 1939 – Italy invades Albania
3. Albania defeated – King Zog deposed and replaced as king by King Emmanuel of Italy. 4. May 1939 –Von Ribbentrop and Ciano sign ‘Pact of Friendship and Alliance’ – known as ‘Pact of Steel’. 5. United Fascist Italy and Fascist Germany in war.
6. When WW2 beaks out Mussolini declares that Italy is neutral.
Invasion of Abyssinia
1. 1935 - Italy invades Abyssinia.
2. Revenge for Abyssinian defeat of Italy in 1896.
3. League of Nations applied limited sanctions. Unsuccessful. 4. 400,000 troops with tanks and planes used.
5. Hitler supported...
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