MAR JOSHUA C. RAFAEL
* The kudlung is a form of zither. It is a stringed instrument having the body of a single piece of bamboo. The strings are composed of strips raised from its outer skin and bridged in place to produce various pitches. The kudlong is a two-stringed lute shaped like a boat. It has wooden tightening rods and frets made of beeswax. One string is often used for droning while the other is played for melody. The gitgit is a chordophone with three strings made of human hair. * Woodwinds
* The lantoy or lantuy is a horizontal flute used to produce soothing sounds. It is made from a piece of bamboo with five carved finger holes. It comes in a variety of sizes and is a nose flute, meaning that it is played using air from the nostrils. * Percussion
* The batiwtiw is a long piece of bamboo that has one split end. The split end is hit with the palm of the hand to produce a percussive buzzing sound. The kalutang is a large instrument played by several people. It has two large pieces of graduated wood whose various sections are hit to produce different pitches. Another form of the kalutang has several pieces of wood from 12 to 30 inches in length that are hit with a padded stick to produce different notes. They are used only for serious occasions, such as curing the sick. The agung is a pair of gongs that are often played alongside the kalutang. * Other Instruments
* The buray-dipay is a rattle made from a large dried bean pod. It is often used in alongside other instruments. The kinaban, or jaw harp, is made from a thin piece of brass or bamboo with a vibrating tongue inside. The harp is held to the player's lips and its tongue is vibrated by striking it with the thumb. The player varies the shape of her mouth to change the resonance of the vibrations, creating different pitches and tones. ambahan
The meter of seven syllables in one line is the characteristic of the ambahan which most obviously distinguishes it from other kinds of Hanunuo-Mangyan poetry. However, there are exceptions to the rule. For instance, more than seven syllables may be found at the beginning of the ambahan, especially when it starts with the standard expression magkunkuno (speaks, says) because the one who "speaks" here may have a long name containing more than the usual seven syllables. Actually, these first lines should not be considered as part of the poem proper, but rather as an introduction to or an explanation of the circumstances which gave rise to the ambahan itself. Sometimes, there may be more than seven syllables because the employed word or words cannot be shortened and no other combination of words is available. On the other hand, a line may contain less than seven syllables in order to preserve the meaning of the line itself which might be disturbed if more syllables were added. However, the last exception rarely occurs. In an effort to conform to the rule of having only seven syllables in each line, the composer tries to fit his words within the pre-determined quantity of syllables. This accounts for the many elisions and contactions of words that make the reading of the ambahan in the Hanunuo-Mangyan script so difficult and exasperating to the translator. Thus nirwasan comes from niruwasan; nilkasan from nilukasan; the mono-syllables gin from ginan; u from una. Conversely, the words may be extended, i.e. syllables may be added in order to have the required seven syllables. In most cases, the normal procedure involves the use of affixes and suffixes, both of which are extensively used in the Philippine languages. The most common one in the Hanunuo-Mangyan language is the suffix -an. Manok becomes manukan, balunos becomes balunusan, without a change in meaning. Within the word, "extensions" may also be found which might be old infixes, no longer common. So dayap becomes...