Musculoskeletal Disorder Among University Students

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Abstract
Musculoskeletal disorders have been associated with the use of computers. This, coupled with the widespread of computers have contributed to the huge amount of research based on office workers, these researches and studies have identified the computer-related risk factors as; duration of use, frequency of use and awkward posture. However, there is limited study found on university students’ computer usage and the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort, despite the fact that computers have become an essential tool in students’ academic life. Therefore, there is a need to study university students’ computer usage and the present of these identified risk factors, as they are the next-generation workforce. The intention of this study is to explore the computer-related risk factors and the prevalence of musculoskeletal discomfort amongst the university student population. 198 respondents were examined and information was obtained with the use of questionnaires as a data collection instrument. The findings show that students are exposure to risk factors similar to those of computer based office workers. It was found that 92.40% of the respondents use the computer beyond 20 hours in a week, which is known to be most pronounced with increase risk of musculoskeletal disorders. 86.40% reported using the computer daily. The study also showed a high level of discomfort experienced by students at the neck, back, shoulders and eyes. This could well mean that university students could be entering the workforce with musculoskeletal injuries if prevention does not start now.

Table of Contents
Abstract6
List of Figures9
List of Tables10
CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION11
1.0 Background to study11
1.1 About University of Glamorgan13
1.2 Scope of Study13
1.3 Aims14
1.4 Objectives15
1.5 Significance of Research15
1.6 Outline of Chapters15
CHAPTER TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW16
2.0 Introduction16
2.1 What is Musculoskeletal Disorder?16
2.2 Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders16
2.3 Attitudes towards Musculoskeletal disorder17
2.4 Statistics18
2.4.1 Magnitude of the problem18
2.4.2 Cost and Age20
2.5 Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace21
2.6 Computers23
2.7 Computer and associated MSDs24
2.8 Risk Factors25
2.8.1 Posture:25
2.8.2 Repetition:26
2.9 MSDs among computer base office workers27
2.10 MSDs and Student computer usage30
2.11 Legislations and Standards36
2.12 Ergonomics40
2.12.1 Ergonomics Awareness and impact on MSDs43
2.12.2 Ergonomics Computer Workstation and Posture44
2.13 Conclusion46
CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY47
3.0 Introduction47
3.1 Research strategy and method47
3.2 Data Collection49
3.2.1 Questionnaire49
3.2.2 Literature review50
3.3 Research design51
3.3.1 Sampling51
3.3.2 Questionnaire Design51
3.3.3 Pilot test53
3.3.4 Administering the Questionnaire53
3.3.5 Data analysis53
3.4 Ethical Consideration54
3.5 Limitation of the study54
3.6 Conclusion54
CHAPTER FOUR: RESULT AND DISCUSSION56
4.0 Introduction56
4.1 General Information56
4.2 Computer Usage Pattern58
4.2.1 Students’ weekly computer usage59
4.2.2 Students’ daily computer usage59
4.2.3 Longest time spent on computer before taking a break61
4.2.4 Computers used by students62
4.2.5 Location63
4.2.6 School Computer Labs/Library63
4.2.7 Awkward Poor posture64
4.2.8 Awkward Poor posture with University computers65
4.2.9 Adjustability of chairs65
4.2.10 Adjusting chair66
4.2.11 Prevalence of discomfort with computer use67
4.3 Information and Awareness71
4.3.1 Information or training received.71
4.3.1 Awareness72
4.4 Additional Comments72
4.5 Discussion73
4.6 Conclusion76
CHAPTER FIVE: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION77
5.1 Introduction77
5.2 Conclusion77
5.3 Recommendation78
5.4 Conclusion81
References82
Bibliography94
Appendix A96
Appendix...
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