Unit 1- Principles of Anatomy & Physiology in Sport
Assignment 1 of 3
Skeletal, cardiac and smooth are the three main types of muscle in the body. Skeletal muscle is a voluntary muscle, this means that it is under control by the somatic nervous system. When viewed under a microscope the appearance of this muscle is striped/ striated. “The primary function of the skeletal muscle is to produce fine movements to keep you alive. Skeletal muscle also contract as a reflex to a stimulus.”- (http://www.livestrong.com/article/114706-five-functions-muscular-system/- 06/12/12). Tendons or collagen fibres attach skeletal muscle to the bones in the body. Smooth muscle is involuntary, this means that it is under control of the autonomic nervous system. This type of muscles is found in the digestive system and blood vessels. They help to regulate digestion and blood pressure. Cardiac muscle is only found in the wall of the heart. It is an involuntary muscle which means it also works under the control of the nervous system, it works continuously. It is made up of a special type of striated tissue that has its own blood supply. When this muscle contracts it helps force blood around the body and through the blood vessels. Each contraction and relaxation of your heart muscle of your heart muscle as a whole represents one heartbeat. Function
There are 3 functions of the muscular system; these are to produce energy, heat production and movement. Movement
For muscles to move they must cross at a joint. When muscles contract they exert a pulling force on the bones, forcing them to move together around the joint. If a muscle does not cross at a joint then there will be no movement. Muscles are normally in a ‘state of partial contraction which means that they are ready to react with a stimulus provided by the nervous system’. When the nervous system supplies a stimulus the muscle fibres work on an ‘all or nothing’...