Causes [Why Nazis Supported Munich Battle]
•Constitutional flaws/ Left Wing opponents (the KPD)/ Right Wing opponents (see page 4) had all made the government weak and vulnerable. •Invasion and inflation made the government VERY weak in 1923. Everybody was very angry with the government – there were Communist rebellions in Saxony and Thuringia. 2.Nazi Party Growing
•In the crises of 1923, the membership of the Nazi Party grew from 6,000 to 55,000. •The Nazi Stormtroopers (SA) grew quickly, and wanted a revolution - in October, an SA leader told Hitler that, if there was not a rebellion soon, the SA would ‘sneak away’. •Hitler became friends with General Ludendorff (a WWI hero) – he thought that the Army would follow Ludendorff in a putsch. 3.Stresemann calls off resistance
In September 1923, the German Chancellor, Stresemann, called off the general strike in the Ruhr (it was ruining Germany). This made EVERY German angry with the government. •There was a right-wing revolt (by the ‘Black Reichswehr’) in Berlin on 1 October 1923, and the Rhineland declared independence on 21–22 October. •The government had to proclaim a State of Emergency, Sept 1923–Feb 1924. 4.Mussolini’s Example
In 1922, Mussolini had seized control of the government of Italy by marching on Rome. Hitler hoped to copy his example. 5.Bavarian Rebellion fails
In Bavaria, the right-wing local government wanted to rebel against the Weimar Republic. Its leaders – Kahr (State Commissioner), Lossow (Local Army Commander) and Seisser (Chief of Police) – planned a march of 15,000 soldiers on Berlin. Hitler was going to help them, but on 4 Nov., they postponed the rebellion. Hitler hoped the Munich Putsch would force them to rebel.
1.8 Nov 1923
•Hitler interrupted the Beer Hall meeting, and forced Kahr, Lossow and Seisser at gunpoint to agree to support him. •The SA took over the Army HQ (but NOT the telegraph office). •...