During the 16th century up to 1655, the area of present day Mumbai was under Portuguese control. The Portuguese established a basic law enforcement structure in this area, with the establishment of a Police out-post in 1661.
In 1669 East India Company was given Bombay Island from king Charles II. who had acquired it when marrying a Portuguese princess a few years before. The origins of the present day Mumbai police can be traced back to a militia organised by Gerald Aungier, the then Governor of Mumbai in 1669. This Bhandari Militia was composed of around 500 men and was head quartered at Mahim, Sewree and Sion. In 1672, the judicial overview of police decisions by courts was introduced, although none of the judges had any actual lefal training. The situation remained unchanged through the Maratha wars. However, by 1682, policing remained stagnant - there was only one ensign for the whole Bhandari militia, and there were only three sergeants and two corporals.
Creation and early days
On 29 March 1780, the office of the Lieutenant of Police was dissolved and on its place, an office of Deputy of Police was created. James Tod, the then Lieutenant of Police, was appointed as the first Deputy of Police on 5 April 1780. He was tried and dismissed for corruption in 1790. Subsequently, the designation was changed to "Deputy of Police and High Constable".
In 1793, Act XXXIII, Geo. III was promulgated. The post of Deputy of Police was abolished and a post of Superintendent of Police was created in its place, with a Deputy of Superintendent of Police assisting him. Mr. Simon Halliday was the first Superintendent of Police, and governed till 1808. During this time, a thorough revision and re-arrangement of policing in the area outside the Fort was carried out. The troublesome area known as "Dungree and the Woods" was split up into 14 Police divisions, each division being staffed by two English constables and a varying number of...