I had never considered developing an assessment from using a proposition. In math, we usually have computation test items that use multiple choice answers. There is also at least one constructed response question. Developing a test questions for a math proposition proved to be difficult because in my opinion, math is a straight forward subject. After thinking, and rethinking my proposition, I came up with the following: If multiplication is repeated addition and can be illustrated by using an array, I can add 4 together 6 times and also draw 4 rows of six to find the answer to 4 x 6. The test items developed are below. 1. True true/false: 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 is the same as 2. False true/false: Repeated addition is the only way to find the answer to 4 x 6. 3. Short answer/Fill in the blank: Multiplication can be shown as _______________ ___________________ or by drawing a(n) __________________. 4. 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 + 4 = ?
a. 12
b. 24
c. 42
d. answer not given
5. Explain how multiplication is related to repeated and how it can be illustrated using arrays. Dr. Stiggins method for developing paperandpencil assessments can help the teacher to ensure that the learning targets are being met. Dr. Stiggins suggested that the teacher create at least 2 questions a week that address the learning goals. By using this suggestions, the teacher eases her work load and can developed questions that help to give a clear picture of the students’ understanding. By providing student a study guide and the learning expectations before teaching the unit, students will know what the expected learning goal consists of. Students will also know what they should focus on. Its like reading the test questions before reading a passage, you are familiar with what you are looking for, and the answers are more likely to “jump” out at you. References
Guskey, T. R. (2003). How classroom assessments...
...into logic is a recent innovation and it still seems strange to many to find the word sentences where propositions might have been expected."(Alonzo)
Basically, propositions have been taken to be sentences that can be true or false but can never be both. This shows that sentences when they meet some conditions will become a proposition. One major distinction between sentences and propositions is that, a sentence cannot be a bearer of truth value while the proposition does so. This is because propositions have logical connections which enable us to deduce whether it is true or false. Sentences in the kinds of questions, exclamations and the like can not be taken as propositions. Example; What is your name? We can not tell whether this is a true or false sentence.
A sentence(proposition) will convey truth when it expresses a proposition, that is, when a sentence has a reference and it is meaningful. The presence of the reference in a proposition will enable us to connect it with our ideas or beliefs outside our mind in order to ascertain their truth value.
This differ from a sentence which may not have a reference , example, keep quiet! In a proposition like, PHIL 402 students went to Cape Coast last thursday,it is clear what the reference is and with the meaning of the proposition, you can tell...
...A value proposition in business and marketing is a statement summarizing the customer segment, competitor targets and the core differentiation of one's product from the offerings of competitors. A company's market contribution normally extends further than its core product to include services, programs and systems rudiments. Value Propositions essentially translates this market offering into a proclamation of the benefits a customer will derive.
It was important for Toyota when developing their value proposition that it was clear and concise. Toyota may have started by brainstorming and focusing on the needs their target demographic group had in common. They would have done some market research.
Toyota's value proposition to prospective buyers of its Prius was "A car that sometimes runs on gas power and sometimes on electric power, from a company that always runs on brain "power". Their ads after introduction went further by stressing tag lines such as "When it sees red, it charges"
The company's value proposition does all to differentiate the Prius and Toyota as "environmentally friendly", also appealing to those consumers who complain about gasoline prices. The value proposition does much to stress on the technology aspect of the car, reaching out to the "techies".
Toyota has determined that the common denominating of an unmet need here, which is, that North Americans love...
...Quiz Submissions  Unit 4 Exercises

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Karl Dent (username: kdent2)

Attempt 2
Written: Apr 6, 2013 12:46 PM  Apr 6, 2013 1:10 PM
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Chapter 4 Random Questions 
Question 1   0 / 1 point 
Categorical Proposition 1F
Given the categorical proposition:
"Some ID cards that are not easy documents to duplicate are forgeries that are not readily available on the Internet."
In Categorical Proposition 1F, which terms are distributed?
  A)  The predicate but not the subject. 

  B)  The subject but not the predicate. 

  C)  Both the quantifier and the copula. 

  D)  Neither the subject nor the predicate. 

  E)  Both the subject and the predicate. 

Question 2   1 / 1 point 
INSTRUCTIONS: Select the answer that best characterizes each immediate inference. Adopt the Aristotelian standpoint for these problems.
It is false that no bats are animals that carry rabies. Therefore, some bats are animals that carry rabies.
  A)  Valid. 

  B)  Invalid, illicit contrary. 

  C)  Invalid, illicit subalternation. 

  D)  Invalid, existential fallacy. 

  E)  Invalid, illicit subcontrary. 

Question 3   1 / 1 point 
INSTRUCTIONS: Select the answer that best characterizes each immediate inference. Adopt the...
...Booth Multiplication Algorithm
Abenet Getahun
Fall 2003 CSCI 401
Booth Multiplication Algorithm
Booth algorithm gives a procedure for multiplying binary integers in signed –2’s
complement representation.
I will illustrate the booth algorithm with the following example:
Example, 2 ten x ( 4) ten
0010 two * 1100 two
Step 1: Making the Booth table
I. From the two numbers, pick the number with the smallest difference between a
series of consecutive numbers, and make it a multiplier.
i.e., 0010  From 0 to 0 no change, 0 to 1 one change, 1 to 0 another change ,so
there are two changes on this one
1100  From 1 to 1 no change, 1 to 0 one change, 0 to 0 no change, so there is
only one change on this one.
Therefore, multiplication of 2 x (– 4), where 2 ten (0010 two) is the multiplicand
and (– 4) ten (1100two) is the multiplier.
II. Let X = 1100 (multiplier)
Let Y = 0010 (multiplicand)
Take the 2’s complement of Y and call it –Y
–Y = 1110
III. Load the X value in the table.
IV. Load 0 for X1 value it should be the previous first least significant bit of X
V. Load 0 in U and V rows which will have the product of X and Y at the end of
operation.
VI. Make four rows for each cycle; this is because we are multiplying four bits
numbers.
U
0000
V
0000
X
1100
X1
0
Load the value
1st cycle
2nd cycle
3rd Cycle
4th Cycle
Step 2: Booth Algorithm
Booth algorithm requires examination of the...
...In order for students to begin learning multiplication, they will need a strong foundational grasp of addition facts. It is this strong understanding and mastery of addition facts and concepts that multiplication will build upon. The three major steps for learning/teaching multiplication facts are developing an understanding of the operation and related number relationships, developing efficient strategies for fact retrieval, and drilling for rapid and accurate recall of facts. The strategies for developing the concepts of multiplication include repeated addition, the commutative property of multiplication, using zero and one, doubles, five facts, and some special helping facts. Teaching these strategies will consist of using concrete experiences (realworld problems), pictorial materials, and some drilling practices with clearly defined parameters.
To develop an understanding of the multiplication operation and related number relationships, realworld problems should be modeled using manipulatives. This in turn can lead to a welldeveloped understanding of mathematical representation. Students can solve multiplication problems using beans and cups, story boards, unifix cubes, arrays, and fact finder grids. Students will also benefit from making up their own reallife multiplication problems, modeling them, and solving. Students might resonate with...
...Misconceptions
The Family of misconceptions that I will examine is the following; multiplication and division always produces larger and smaller values respectively. This is related to the order in which children are taught the concepts of multiplication, Division and extending the set of numbers from integers to non integers and fractions.
Misconception  Demonstration of why this is incorrect 
Multiplication always makes a number larger or it stays the same stays the samesolution larger than original number (5)  Multiplication can make numbers smaller multiplication by a decimal less than 1 multiplication by a fraction less then 1multiplication by a negative 
Division always makes numbers smaller or they stay the same.solution smaller than original number (12)stays the same  Division can make a number larger division by a decimal less than 1 division by a fraction less than 1division of a negative number by another negative number 
The primary reason that children have this misconception is when they first encounter the functions multiplication and division, they are only being exposed to positive integers, thus the examples that they will have been given and the examples they practiced will all have followed the pattern that multiplication makes numbers larger and division makes numbers smaller.
The misconception persists when they individual...
...ASSIGNMENT
Instructions:
The design tasks of this assignment are to be done in pairs. However, each student must write his/her own VHDL codes, simulation work and submit an individual report. Reports must be printed / written NEATLY.
Deadline:
21st January 2010 (Friday, week 13) by 4pm. Submit to Ms Lee YL (BR4027)
Signed multiplication can be performed with either a negative multiplicand or multiplier represented in 2’s complement by summation of partial product of the multiplicand and all the bits of the multiplier except the most significant bit (MSB), which is subtracted from the partial sum instead. As an example, 3 × –4 (represented by n=4 bits) are computed as follows:
0011 × 1100:
0 0 0 0 0011 × 0
0 0 0 0 0011 × 0
0 0 1 1 + 0011 × 1
0 0 1 1 0 0
0 0 1 1 – 0011 × 1
1 1 1 0 1 0 0 (product is –12, represented in 2’s complement)
A RISC machine performs the abovedescribed signed integer multiplication of n by n bits using a multiplier with the following components:
1. An nbit register stores the multiplicand.
2. An nbit rightshift register stores the multiplier.
3. A 2nbit accumulator shift register stores the product
4. An n+1bit 2’complement adder
5. A counter to count the bits of the multiplier
The procedures to perform a 2’s complement multiply are as follows:
1. Bit counter and product...
...judgment and proposition
Judgment and Proposition
* Ideas are not enough to give us a comprehensive knowledge of things because the human intellect cannot grasp in one apprehensive act all the perfections of a thing.
* The human mind has to proceed step by step, interrelating the ideas apprehended into judgment.
* The logical union of different ideas in a judgment reflects the real unity of things.
Judgment
*Is a mental operation that pronounces the agreement or disagreement between two ideas.
Proposition
* As ideas are expressed in the concrete through the use of terms, judgment is expressed in the concrete through the use of proposition.
*A proposition is a linguistic expression or the sensible sign of the judgment.
Constituents of a Proposition:
1. Subject – is the one spoken of, the one about whom or of which something is affirmed or denied.
2. Predicate – is what is affirmed or denied of the subject.
3. Copula – links the subject with the predicate.
4. The subject and predicate are called the matter because they are the materials or ingredients out of which the proposition is made.
5. The copula is the form for it is the unifying principle that gives the structure of a proposition.
Categorical Propositions
* Is that which gives a direct assertion of agreement or disagreement between the subject term and the predicate term....