Frames of Mind(1983)
When you hear the word intelligence, the concept of IQ testing may immediately come to mind. Intelligence is often defined as our intellectual potential, something we are born with, something that can be measured and a capacity that is difficult to change. In recent years, however, other views of intelligence have emerged. One such conception is the theory of multiple intelligences proposed by former Harvard psychologist Howard Gardner. According to Howard Gardner, all human beings possess all nine intelligences in varying degrees, that each person has a different intellectual composition and that these intelligences are located in different areas of the brain and can either work independently or together. Howard Gardner claims that all human beings have multiple intelligences. These multiple intelligences can be nurtured and strengthened, or ignored and weakened. Howard Gardner defined the first seven intelligences in his book Frames of Mind in 1983, and added the last two in his book entitled Intelligence Reframed in 1999. He believed each individual has nine intelligences, namely: linguistic intelligence or "word smart", logical-mathematical intelligence or "number/reasoning smart", spatial intelligence or "picture smart", bodily-kinesthetic intelligence or "body smart", musical intelligence or "music smart", interpersonal intelligence or "people smart", intrapersonal intelligence or "self smart", naturalistic intelligence or "nature smart" and the existential intelligence. Dr. Gardner says that our schools and culture focus more of their attention on linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences. We esteem the highly articulate or logical people of our culture, however, he also says that we should also place equal attention on... [continues]
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