REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES
This chapter provides a review of literature and related studies in order to acquire more ideas and concepts on multiple intelligences and management skills of secondary school administrators.
On Multiple Intelligences. The theory of Multiple Intelligences is led by three components: (1) all of us have the full range of intelligences; that is what makes us human beings, cognitively speaking; (2) no two individuals – not even identical twins – have the same intellectual profile because, even when the genetic material are identical, individuals have different experiences (and identical twins are often highly motivated to distinguish themselves from one another); and (3) having a strong intelligence does not mean that one necessarily acts intelligently. A person with high mathematical intelligence might use her abilities to carry out important experiments in physics or create powerful new geometric proofs; but she might waste these abilities in playing the lottery all day or multiplying ten-digit numbers in head (Gardner, 2006).
The theory of Multiple Intelligences was developed when Gardner (1993) wrote Frames of Mind. It was in this seminal book that he suggested that the intelligence of the human mind is not a single property that can be measured by a given number. Gardner (2004) stated in his view the traditional use of IQ tests to determine intelligence was not sufficient. Gardner (1993) argued that IQ tests were restricted to verbal, logical-mathematical, and spatial intelligence. Instead he believed that several aspects of human capability formed intelligence like spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, musical, interpersonal, and intrapersonal. From his research, he confirmed that to encompass adequately the realm of human cognition, a wider and more universal set of competencies must be considered. This is because traditional approaches of intelligence ignored other intelligences and therefore limited human capability (Gardner, 2006).
Traub (1998) stated, “M.I. theory has proved powerful not because it’s true but because it chimes with the values and presuppositions of the school world and of the larger culture.” In addition, “M.I theory legitimizes the fad for ‘self-esteem,’ the unwillingness to make even elementary distinctions of value, the excessive regard for diversity, and the decline of diligence."
Gardner (2006) asserted that unlike general intelligence, multiple intelligences have their own characteristic processes that are reasonably independent of one another. Simply put, “the independence of intelligences makes a good working hypothesis.” However, he maintained that such independence does not mean the independence is theoretically necessary. For instance, “it may turn out empirically that certain intelligences are more closely ties together than others, at least in particular cultural settings.” Nonetheless, when multiple intelligences are used together, they complement each other as people develop skills or solve problems.
According to Smith (2008), linguistic and logical-mathematical intelligences have been typically valued in schools: musical, bodily-kinesthetic, and spatial intelligences are usually associated with the arts; and interpersonal and intrapersonal intelligences are called personal intelligences and are often linked together.
Armstrong (1999) emphasized that the remarkable feature of the theory of multiple intelligences is how it provides seven different ways of learning: 1. Words, word smart (linguistic intelligence);
2. Numbers or logic, number/reasoning smart (logical-mathematical intelligence); 3. Pictures, picture smart (spatial intelligence);
4. Music, music smart (musical intelligence);
5. Self-reflection, self smart (intrapersonal intelligence); 6. A physical experience, body smart (bodily-kinesthetic intelligence); and 7. A social experience, people smart (interpersonal...