Part 1Short Answer Questions
Question 1: List and very briefly describe the five internal factors of the Multifactor Offender Readiness model described by Howell and Day (2007) towards the treatment for high risk offenders. Howell and Day discuss The Multifactor Offender Readiness Model towards the treatment for high risk offenders. They reason that there is an assumption of The Multifactor Offender Readiness model, that readiness is a function of both internal (person) factors and external (context) factors. The Multifactor Offender Readiness model identifies five internal factors of readiness that are required, they are: • Cognitive factors - the performance of some composite cognitive activity is one internal readiness factor identified by the model. The cognitive variables that are significant when evaluating the impairment of engagement include attitudes, beliefs and patterns of thinking as well as specific expectations of therapy and therapy outcomes. The perceptions and beliefs that an offender may have in regards to staff providing therapy and the programmes offered by the systems of which they are a part of, are other important factors of the cognitive process. Whether an offender believes that he/she is capable of engagement and change are also significant cognitions as are the beliefs about the benefits and costs of treatment of the offender.
• Affective factors - There are three aspects of emotionality that are identified as major influences of readiness: the capacity to experience emotional states, the ability to express emotion and the capacity to reflect on emotional states. There can be numerous causes of an individual to be unable to access their emotional state, however whatever the causes are, this inability to experience, express and reflect emotions is an obstruction for readiness in many therapeutic programmes.
• Volitional factors - The power or faculty of choosing; the will or...