Multicultural Psychology 535
Dr. V. Carter
University Of Phoenix
Multicultural Psychology Paper
Prepare a 1,050 to 1,400-word paper in which you examine multicultural psychology. In your paper, address the following items:
1) Define multicultural psychology
2) Provide a brief history of multicultural psychology
3) Provide a rationale for the establishment of multicultural psychology as a subspecialty of psychology
Multicultural psychology is the study of the influences of culture on human personality, development, and behavior. The primary difference between traditional and multicultural psychology is as follows: traditional psychology assumes that theories about human behavior and personality are universally true, whereas multicultural psychology holds that theories about human behavior and personalities are both universal as well as culture specific. Further, multicultural psychology inquires into how identities like gender, socio-economic status, race, sexual orientation, disabilities, religious affiliation contribute to the development of the self.
Before 1960s cultural issues were virtually absent from psychological research (Nagayama Hall, 2010). Influenced by Freud’s theory of personality and development, anthropologists like Mead (1928), Benedict (1946), Kardiner (1945), and Linton (1945) suggested the influence of societies and culture in personality development (Segall, Dasen, Berry, & Poortinga, 1999). According to Kardiner and Linton certain commonalities in personalities happen because of socialization process. Whiting and Child (1953) showed that there is a mutual relationship between social systems and personalities (Segull et el, 1999). In the 1960s and 1970s researcher focused on race and ethnicity as a categorical variable in development and personality. At this time many multicultural psychologists focused their research on how variables such as race gender, ethnicity, influence personality and development. Multicultural psychologists developed several theories on the development of racial and ethnic identities, on issues of multi-ethnic identities and acculturation and how acculturation influences personality development. One of the earliest theories that inquired into the influence of race in identity development was that the Cross Model developed by William Cross (1971). Cross conceived of racial identity as a process involving four stages, such as pre-encounter, encounter, immersion/emersion, and internalization. The model was developed in African American context, but has implications for other racial groups as well. This theory led to the development of the Cross Racial Identity Scale for measuring racial identity was developed. Following the Cross model Helms (1991) developed another model for inquiring into White identity development (Nagayama Hall, 2010). This model led to the development of The White Racial Identity Attitude Scale (Helms & Carter). Next, Sellers developed the Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity was developed. Unlike the Cross model where the development of racial identities were placed in sequential stages, in Sellers model, the significance of racial identity may vary across time and situations. The Multidimensional Model of Racial Identity is assessed with the Multidimensional Inventory of Black Identity. Although the...