In 1965 the end of preferential quotas for European Americans. Immigration Reform Bill.
In the 1960s there were movements by various groups that were traditionally oppressed or marginalized for full inclusion.
There were also counterculture movements.
This also had an impact on European Americans who had in the past turned away from their roots. Began also to take pride in their ethnicity.
The 1970s mark the end of mass marketing and the development of modern consumer capitalism.
Think of the ads and the tv shows of the 1950s. There was one type of family. The Protestant white American family. Male was the breadwinner. Kids were obedient.
Age of mass marketing. Everyone wanted to be like other Americans.
Levittown – a planned community in Long Island. Many such places all over the country. Each house is the same, same yard, same cars in the garage. Dads all looked the same. This is of course an exaggeration. It was a middle class life but more and more people lived this lifestyle. Economy was expanding.
less than 11% of the population nonwhite.
Average age lived to 69
3 national tv networks
less than 5% of GNP comes from international trade or investment. An inward focus.
Melting pot, fitting in, conformity – an ideal
Consumer capitalism – provides what the market demands. Different orientation.
In the global marketplace, national boundaries are erased. People in some ways become more similar.
Individualistic vs. collective orientation.
Buying brands an expression of personal identity.
A move from mass to segmented marketing. Emergence of ethnic markets.
Targeting – using communication styles of the group you are interested in reaching.
U.S. Latinos or Hispanic Americans (Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans)
African Americans or Black. Caribbean Americans (Jamaican Americans, Haitian Americans)
Asian Americans (Chinese Americans, Japanese Americans, Pacific Islanders)
European Americans or White Americans (Russian Americans, Albanian Americans)
Jewish Americans, Catholic Americans, Evangelical Christians
Gay Americans or Gay, Gay and Lesbian, Lesbian Americans.
Mature Americans or Senior Citizens, Seniors, Older Americans
2020 non white Americans in the majority.
U.S. Latinos will be the largest group
Regional concentrations. Some areas are 97% Hispanic or 97% Asian.
Melting Pot vs. Salad Bowl
Melting Pot = one American culture. Ethnicities dissolved. Something new but uniform.
Salad Bowl = Multicultural. Differences are valued and maintained.
Why is this threatening to some White Americans?
New immigrants assimilate very differently. In the past there was a shame about being an immigrant. Language, religion, culture marked you as different.
France – controversy regarding head scarves for women. Was forbidden. An attempt to return to a model where the French were superior and all others had to conform.
In U.S. much more tolerance.
Hybrid cultures have emerged: Mexican Americans are unique. Neither Mexican nor entirely American.
Marketing has traditionally used mass communication technique.
In the 1970s 7% of U.S. homes had cable. People watched same 3 or 4 channels.
Today advertisers can’t easily reach a mass audience. 500+ channels. International programming. High speed internet, wireless. News on line, international.
Focus has shifted to reaching a select audience.
Today we hear of relationship marketing. Appeal to emotions. This is the key to selling. Appeal to minds and hearts of consumers.
Product placement important.
As media has fragmented.
Utilize existing social networks – this is a key to multicultural marketing.
In the past, people acquired an identity though inherited identity....