Multi Store Model of Memory

Topics: Short-term memory, Working memory, Memory processes Pages: 1 (405 words) Published: September 19, 2008
This is a very common model of memory that assumes there are different types of memory that are used for different tasks. In particular, these link together in an effective chain. The three stages of the multi-store memory are Sensory memory [modality specific], Short-term memory and Long-term memory [modality free]. Atkinson and Shiffrin discovered it in 1968. The sensory memory collects information that is taken in by the senses, if attention is focused on the sensory store; the data is transformed to the short-term memory. Most of the information taken in by the sensory store has no attention paid to it and therefore is forgotten in an instant. The information needs to be rehearsed in order to remember it, otherwise it will be forgotten through decay or displacement. Once remembered, the information can be passed to the long-term memory. From here it can be retrieved back to the short-term memory. However, the information can also be forgotten from the long-term memory due to retrieval cue failure and interference. The more the information is rehearsed the better it can be remembered. Attention and rehearsal can explain how data is transferred between the stores.

Glanzer-Cunitz (1966) carried out supporting research known as the ‘Serial Position Effect’ in which they gave participants a list of words, waited and then asked them to recall them. They were able to remember the first few words and the last few but not those in the middle. This proved that there are separate stores in memory. Shallice-Harrington [1970] study showed also that there were different stores in memory. A mans memory was damaged from a motor bike accident, leaving his short term memory severely damaged even though his long term memory was still in tact. The multi-store model has also been criticised. Baddely and Hitch (1977) aruge that the model is an oversimplification of the memory process and introduced the working memory model which had the main store, the central executive, and...
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