"Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory" (12 marks)
The multi-store model of memory, was first described by Atkinson and Shiffrin(1968), and suggested that memory consisted of three seperate stores, the sensory memory store, the short-term memory (STM) store and the long-term memory (LTM) store.They also presented a diagram to represent this and according to this model, memory is portrayed as a flow of information through a system of fixed stages, beginnging with the eyes, ears, nose, touch or smell picking up on a stimulus and allowing it into the sensory memory, passing onto the STM and then possibly to the LTM if there is maintanance rehersal. Much of the information we pick up on is lost due to failure of rehersal or retrival. To recall information, it is needed to pass back from the LTM and into the STM, so reverse order. The duration and capacity of the three stores are very different, the sensory memory holding memory for a very short amount of time as it only acknowleges a multitude of stimulis just long enough for them to be recognised. Any information we then pay attention to is processed further to the STM where 7, plus or minus 2, chunks of information can be stored again for only a short space of time, 18 seconds. Atkinson and Shiffrin believed that memory in the STM is 'fragile' and will decay within 30 seconds unless reheresed or repeated. Information can also be lost here through displacement, due to the duration. Memories that are rehearsed is passed onto the LTM where it can remain for a lifetime and is limitless in relation to its capacity as you can always learn more and more. Although forgetting is common in LTM due to retrival failure. There are many positive and negative criticisms of the multi-store model, the strengths being the strong evidence of the three memory stores and the model provides an account of memory in terms of its structure, e.g the three stores, and the processes e.g rehersal. The MSM...
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