Multi Model Transport

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Introduction to Multi-Modal Transportation Planning
Principles and Practices
10 December 2012 By Todd Litman Victoria Transport Policy Institute

Abstract
This paper summarizes basic principles for transportation planning. It describes conventional transport planning, which tends to focus on motor vehicle traffic conditions, and newer methods for more multi-modal planning and evaluation.

Todd Alexander Litman © 2006-2011

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Multi-Modal Transportation Planning
Victoria Transport Policy Institute

Conventional Transportation Planning Conventional (also called traditional or business as usual) transportation planning refers to current practices for making transport policy, investment and design decisions. Multimodal planning refers to planning that considers various modes (walking, cycling, automobile, public transit, etc.) and connections among modes. There are several specific types of transport planning for reflecting different scales and objectives:         Traffic impact studies evaluate traffic impacts and mitigation strategies for a particular development or project. Local transport planning develops municipal and neighborhood transport plans. Regional transportation planning develops plans for a metropolitan region. State, provincial and national transportation planning develops plans for a large jurisdiction, to be implemented by a transportation agency. Strategic transportation plans develop long-range plans, typically 20-40 years into the future. Transportation improvement plans (TIPs) or action plans identify specific projects and programs to be implemented within a few years. Corridor transportation plans identify projects and programs to be implemented on a specific corridor, such as along a particular highway, bridge or route. Mode- or area-specific transport plans identify ways to improve a particular mode (walking, cycling, public transit, etc.) or area (a campus, downtown, industrial park, etc.).

Figure 1 Transport Planning Process (FHWA and FTA, 2007)

A transport planning process typically includes the following steps:   Monitor existing conditions. Forecast future population and employment growth, and identify major growth corridors. Identify current and projected future transport problems and needs, and various projects and strategies to address those needs. Evaluate and prioritize potential improvement projects and strategies. Develop long-range plans and short-range programs identifying specific capital projects and operational strategies. Develop a financial plan for implementing the selected projects and strategies.



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Multi-Modal Transportation Planning
Victoria Transport Policy Institute

Conventional transportation evaluation tends to focus on certain impacts, as summarized in Table 1. Commonly-used transport economic evaluation models, such as MicroBenCost, were designed for highway project evaluation, assuming that total vehicle travel is unaffected and is unsuitable for evaluating projects that include alternative modes or demand management strategies. Table 1 Impacts Considered and Overlooked

Often Overlooked Generated traffic and induced travel impacts Downstream congestion Impacts on non-motorized travel (barrier effects) Parking costs Vehicle ownership and mileage-based depreciation costs. Project construction traffic delays Indirect environmental impacts Strategic land use impacts (sprawl versus smart growth) Transportation diversity and equity impacts Per-capita crash risk Public fitness and health impacts Travelers’ preferences for alternative modes (e.g., for walking and cycling)

Usually Considered Financial costs to governments Vehicle operating costs (fuel, tolls, tire...
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