OPENING A NEW DOOR OF GLORY FOR MUSLIMS
SUBMITTED BY: RIDA RASOOL HASHMI
SUBMITTED TO: AYESHA CHAPRA
DATE OF SUBMISSION: 10TH MAY 2010
SECTION: BS /SS 2 B
In this term paper I have discussed Muhammad Bin Qasim’s entire campaign of invading South Asia one of history’s major landmarks in changing the shape of the world making it as it is today. The following points are discussed in the term paper. 1. Introduction of Muhammad Bin Qasim. As a 17 year old Arab general sent to the South Asia to conquer it. His personal life. 2. The reasons which became the milestones in justifying attacking South Asia. The refuge of the Arab rebels in south Asia, the problem of pirates looting trade ships of Arabs, the Persian kings were taking refuge in Sindh and China which needed to be stopped, taking control of the important water trade corridor of the Indus delta and the strategy to win Gandhara through two way attack. 3. The campaign of Muhammad Bin Qasim first at Debal. His first war being at the fort of the Debal known as Hedrabad today. Then the war at Nawabshah and the final war of Multan which dissolved the rule of Raja Dahir. 4. The reason for Muhammad Bin Qasim’s success are discussed such as using better war equipments such as the new swords of Damascus, the catapult , the navy being used for supplies and logistics, the charismatic persona of Muhammad Bin Qasim and the bad political and social conditions in the South Asia. 5. The unjust death of Muhammad Bin Qasim by the hand of Suleman bin Abdul Malik because of his personal enmity with Muhammad bin Qasim’s uncle Hajjaj Bin Yousaf. 6. The positive impact of invading Sindh on the Muslim world’s preaching and trade. 7. The positive impact of invading Sindh on the future of South Asia.
MUHAMMAD BIN QASIM
(OPENING A NEW DOOR OF GLORY FOR MUSLIMS)
Muhammad Bin Qasim was born in Taif on c. 31 December 695. His father died in his childhood making his mother his prime supporter for life and education. His paternal uncle Hajjaj Bin Yousaf was the governer of the Ummayyad caliphate thus he became influential in Muhammad Bin Qasim’s education of warfare and politics. He married around the age of late 16 his cousin zubaida ,hajjaj’s daughter. He became the governer of Persia with Hajjaj’s patronage. He was sent to avenge Raja Dahir who looted some Arab trade ships and kidnapped the Arabs at the age of 17 shortly after his marriage. He had some 6000 armed cavalry with him. He was the first Arab Muslim to successfully invade in SOUTH ASIA and took over from the south coast of Indian subcontinent which was the port of Debal (modern Karachi) up till Multan. He is sometimes addressed as the first ever Pakistani as well. (Wikipedia.com)
THE UMMAYAD CALIPHATE’S INTEREST IN SOUTH ASIA
According to Zaid Hamid and Alexander Berzin the political era of caliph Walid Bin Abdul Malik. In that era Hajjaj bin Yousaf the governer of Persia and Iraq had sent out huge warfare campaigns in all directions of the sultanate such as the Hispanic war and Byzantine war. At the same time era Muhammad Bin Qasim was sent to South Asia. Unauthentic History sources give us the vague reasons that Raja Dahir of Debal (modern Karachi) had looted some ships which caused Hajjaj to send army to end this problem of Indian pirates. But originally the conquest of South Asia was based on several major reasons which raised the necessity of conquering South Asia. 1. The first cause which comes into light is the fact that the newly conquered Persian Empire had its borders directly linked to China and India. So the Persian kings and military officers who had been defeated by the Muslims were fleeing to both its neighboring countries for help thus a need to stop them from getting help against the Muslims offered a valid reason to invade South Asia. 2. The second cause which comes to light is that the rebels of the caliphate were also creating...