|by | |Abdur Rahim Sajid | |M.Phil-I | | | |Submitted to | | | |Mr. Qamar Abbas |
Beaconhouse National University,
Zafar Ali Road, Lahore
Sr. No. Title Page No.
1.The Mughal Empire1-2
3.Nature of Mughal Administration3-4
4.Administration in Mughal Empire4-5
5.Administration under Sher Shah5-6
9 The Emperor6
10 Wakil and Wazir7
11 Diwani Kul7
12 Mir Bakhshi8
13 Mir Saman9
14 Sadr-us Sudur9
15 Qazi-ul Qazzat9
17 Provincial Governor10
20 Darogha-i Dak and the Secret Services11
10.Town, Fort and Port Administration13-14
30 Port Administration14
The Mughal Empire
India in the 16th century had numerous unpopular rulers, both Muslim and Hindu, with an absence of common bodies of laws or institutions. External developments also played a role in the rise of the Mughal Empire. The circumnavigation of Africa by the Portuguese explorer “Vasco da Gama” in 1498 allowed Europeans to challenge Arab control of the trading routes between Europe and Asia. In Central Asia and Afghanistan, shifts in power pushed Babur of Ferghana (in present-day Uzbekistan) southward, first to Kabul and then to India. The Mughal Empire lasted for more than three centuries. The Mughal Empire was one of the largest centralized states in pre modern history and was the precursor to the British Indian Empire.
The Mughals were the last powerful descendants of the Mongols; descended from Mongol stock in Turkestan, in the early 1500's they engaged in the last series of conquests to bear the Mongol name. They were, however, quite distant from their original ancestors. The Mughals had become Islamic, for the Middle Eastern Mongol invaders had converted to Islam long before. They had also thoroughly absorbed Middle Eastern culture, especially Persian culture (the Persian word for Mongol is "Mughal," from which we get the English word, "mogul," meaning "tycoon"), and their wars of invasion spread Persian culture throughout India. Much of Persian culture was based on Shi'a Islam and its mystical doctrine of a Divine Light present in the earth in the form of the Imam, or religious guide on earth. It was equally influenced by Sufi mysticism, a branch of Islamic religion that stressed the mystical union of human with god. Much of Persian culture was also derived from Mongolian culture, particularly art, which was based on Chinese models of painting. In many ways, then, the Mughal invasion of India and its importation of Persian culture was a roundabout...